Subgenus Vignea (Lestib.) Kukenthal

 In Arkansas, seven sections represent the subgenus Vignea.  Section Divisae (represented by C. douglasii) and the possible addition Section Intermediae (C. sartwellii) are excluded from the Arkansas flora.  "Lenticular achenes, dorsiventrally flattened perigynia, two stigmas, and both carpellate and staminate flowers in each spike of the inflorescence" (Tucker 1987) characterize the subgenus.  In simpler terms, plants in this section have two sided fruits, usually flattened in most species, with two styles and stigmas.  Each spike has both male and female flowers.

Section Divisae (excluded from the Arkansas flora)

(revised June 18, 1999) 

Carex douglasii Boott 

Excluded from the flora of Arkansas (Smith 1988, Hyatt 1998).  Smith (1988) notes: "Reported for Newton County by Thompson (1977); it seems very unlikely for Arkansas, based on its distribution in Steyermark (1963)."  Smith's keys (Smith 1994) do not treat this taxon. It differs from all other known Arkansas carices by having this combination of characters: achenes two-sided, lenticular; styles and stigmas two; culms from long creeping rootstocks, mostly arising singly or a few together (modified from Steyermark).  [I need to find Thompson’s specimen to more formally exclude this taxon.] 

In Missouri, the plant occurs only along railroad track in St. Louis according to Steyermark (ibid) who says it "ranges from [St. Louis County] Missouri, Iowa, and Manitoba, west to British Columbia and south to Colorado and California" and "flowers early May to late June" in Missouri.

Cyperaceae of Arkansas

            These webpages started in 1991 with my decision to publish a book on Arkansas Carex sedges by 2011.  My 1995, with the birth of the internet, I quickly decided a web-based publication would be much easier to publish than a paper bound book.  This series of webpages is the result.  I will edit things as I post them, but the early emphasis on Carex will be obvious.  This document will, hopefully, expand quickly to include my entire book.  I'd love to make money off this (donations are invited), but I've decided to make it available for no cost other than your guilt for not sending me money!  In that spirit, let's begin!  Obviously, this is not a traditional flora!

Arkansas Carex:

an annotated list

by Philip E. Hyatt

 2012

Carex in Arkansas

Introduction

             Orzell and Bridges (1987) reviewed the status of collecting in general in Arkansas, discussing lists of taxa published previous to 1987 for the state.  In 1991, initially followed their lead in accepting E. B. Smith's (1978, revised 1988) text "An atlas and annotated list of the vascular flora of Arkansas" as a starting point for Carex records, I began studying Carex in Arkansas.  As did Orzell and Bridges, I follow now the generous advice (and taxonomy) of Dr. Anton A. (Tony) Reznicek at MICH (the herbarium of the University of Michigan).  This resulted in the inclusion into the Carex flora of Arkansas of many species initially synonymized in Smith's treatments (see also Smith 1994).  The Flora of North America, Vol. 23 (2003) certainly provides a baseline for naming Arkansas Carex species, but this reference has not been heavily used in the preparation of this work, simply because my thoughts on Carex species concepts were well developed by the time the Flora of North America was in print.

Background to the genus Carex

             "Carex is predominantly a genus of the northern latitudes” (Orzell & Bridges 1987) and is made up worldwide “of about 2,000 species of herbaceous perennials.  The genus is widely distributed and species occur in a wide range of habitats from tropical areas to the high arctic (Bernard 1990).  The taxonomy of southern Carex species, and of northern species extending to the southern United States, has largely been based on too little material from too few localities to be thought of as definitive.  Many species which are inherently uncommon and restricted to specialized habitats in the southern states are known from only a very few collections in each state" (Orzell & Bridges 1987).  For example, 41 of 88 taxa E. B. Smith (1988) lists for Arkansas occur in five or fewer counties.  "There has been a tendency, when confronted with only a handful of collections supposedly representing several closely related species in their state, for southern authors to synonymize Carex species of their reports for the state of concern" (Orzell & Bridges 1987).  I agree with Orzell & Bridges in "recognizing traditional morphological concepts" and in leaving the "interpretation of which constitute biological species to critical taxonomic studies."   Recognition of these taxa, while complicating my work, "provides systematists with clues, including voucher locations, to their ranges and possible intergradations."  That is, recognizing taxa which are lumped by some authors prevents information from being lumped on what this author recognizes as morphologically and ecologically distinct species.

Economic importance of the genus Carex

             The economic importance of Carex lies in several areas.  Primarily, Carex sedges provide forage for animals (Bernard 1990).  "The nutritional content [of Carex species] is very similar to that of common pasture grasses such as Kentucky Bluegrass, Poa pratensis L. (Tucker 1987).  Specifically, for example, C. jamesii puts up a strong growth of foliage in early spring (late March) in the Ozarks before grasses have sprouted.  This spring growth often gets trimmed back to ground level, presumably by deer, only to re-sprout and bloom later in the season (April and May).  Extensive searches by this author revealed perhaps half or more of these colonies will be heavily grazed in this way in early spring so every plant in sight has been trimmed, while fewer colonies grow ungrazed or lightly to moderately grazed in other nearby valleys.

Growth and reproduction patterns in Carex

             No annual Carex sedges exist (Tucker 1987).  The majority of Arkansas carices, like the genus in general, from rhizomatous perennial clones.  Many species reproduce vegetatively (Bernard 1990).  Two types of asexual reproduction occur in Arkansas taxa.  “Asexual reproduction is usually by underground stems or rhizomes . . . . [Another type is] budding by axillary buds on . . . shoots that are true stems . . . (ibid).  Several members of the section Ovales develop such stolons, including C. longii, C. ozarkana, C. projecta, and C. tribuloides.  These “buds develop in autumn on the nodes of the vegetative culms of the year’s shoots after they had fallen over and lay prostrate on the soil surface . . . . These shoots may overwinter in that condition and grow in spring “(ibid).  Bernard (ibid) further discusses the life history and vegetative reproduction in Carex.  He divides the growth forms into three groups based on rhizome behavior: 1) those species producing only long rhizomes, 2) those producing only short rhizomes producing a cespitose clump (such as C. leavenworthii), and 3) species such as C. meadii, C. crawii, and C. microdonta which form both long and short rhizomes causing the creation of tiller clumps.  A tiller consists of a long rhizome and an associated group of above ground shoots. [revise the above section]

            Tucker (1987) comments on the dispersal of fruits of Carex.  "It has been assumed that species with inflated perigynia are dispersed by floating on water, but experimental verification is lacking.  Several North American species (e.g., C. communis Bailey, C. umbellata Willd., and C. pedunculata Will. have elaiosomes at the base of the perigynia and are dispersed by ants" (see also Gaddy 1986; Handel 1978). 

 Ecological groups within the genus Carex

            Four broad ecological groups exist: prairie, wetland, forest, and ruderal.  Sections often contain ecologically similar species.  For example, the Section Ovales contains many prairie species.  The "Section Acrocystis Dumort . . . contains species of dry to dry-mesic open or wooded habitats...." (Tucker 1987).  The Section Albae Acherson & Graebner "is composed of many calcicoles" (ibid).  Wetland species, as all these ecological groups, could be divided further.  Wetland species contain prairie or ruderal groups, as well as plants of such habitats as springs and seeps, sinkhole ponds, swamps, or stream species.

Distribution maps

            Map records have remained independent from descriptive records below, since they contain spatial data rather than text.  Hyatt (1998b) provided data through the 1998 collecting season.  New Arkansas Carex distribution maps are due to be published by the Arkansas Flora Committee in 2012, so the present author has chosen to not include distribution maps in this work.  In fact, we expect those distribution maps to be available on the internet within a year or two.  The 1998 maps show specimens the author has reviewed in a darkened shade, while all other records, considered reports, show up with a lighter shade.  Reports include some citations of vouchers gleaned from the literature, or records from E. B. Smith (1988).  I have reviewed collections at APCR (1992), GA (1994), LSU (1996), LSUS (1996), LTU (1999), MO (in part) (1994), NA (1994), NLU (1996, in part), NO (1996), UAM (1993), University of Alabama (1999), UARK (1999), USCH (1993), and from the Ozark National Forest collection housed in Fifty-six, Arkansas on the Sylamore Ranger District (1993).  UARK and MICH house many of my collections, with some collections at many other herbaria, including at least APCR, COLO, LSU, NA, NLU, MO, SFRP, SWSL, and UAM.

 Species accounts follow the following format [with notes in brackets].

 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number.  Genus species Author [if needed...] variety or subspecies Author  (common name, as given by the United States Corp of Engineers, if listed by them).

[synonyms: Genus species etc.]

United States Corp of Engineers wetland classification. Notes.  Management recommendations (especially for rarer species).  Range.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Example:

1. Carex hyattii Hyatt var. hyattii (Hyatt) Hyatt  Hyatt’s Sedge

Obl.  Nonexistant.  Management recommendation: burn it!  Arkansas.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

           Management suggestions and notes on a species reaction to disturbance (including fire, mowing, roads, impoundments, etc) are based primarily on the author’s Arkansas observations.  Thus, for example, recommendations for maintaining undisturbed wetland habitat for C. gracillima may not apply in more northern, cooler and more moist environments.

Wetland codes

             The U. S. Army Corp of Engineers lists the status of various wetland sedges for use in jurisdictional wetland determinations.  The species accounts include these, without citation to their documents, in the form of codes (FAC, OBL, FACW+, etc.).  The Corp uses these codes to designate wetland species; for example, OBL ("Obligate" wetland species).  Two other codes frequently used are FAC for facultative wetland species and UPL for upland species.  The codes assigned to a single taxon vary from United States Corp of Engineers (USCOE) region to region.  Because these classifications change with revisions, I am only including them now for my own reference.  Persons doing wetland determinations are likely to be familiar with the codes, but more up to date documents may become available as time passes.  As of 1996, the [cite list] codes are still valid (pers. commun. USCOE, Little Rock).

Rare species

             No known occurrences of federally listed (U. S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service) Carex species exist in Arkansas.  The Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission tracks taxa, and since that information is available on line it is not repeated here as it would soon be out of date anyway.

 

The genus Carex

             Tucker (1987) describes the genus as follows: Carex Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 972.  1753; Gen. Pl. 280. 1754.  Initially I tried to include too much information on Carex in this document but over time I decided to leave some data such as detailed botanical descriptions to others.

Background to the future 

a preface, of sorts 

(revised Jan. 29, 2005 and October 2, 2012 other dates below)

            This intense study of the genus Carex in Arkansas began in May 1991, when I formulated a plan to produce a book on the subject in 2011.  Hyatt (1998b) sumarized work through 1997, and provides a baseline for this document.  It also provides much of the background below. 

Abstract 

            Updated (January 15, 2001) from Hyatt (1998), collections from the years 1987 to 2000 and herbarium specimens study during that time frame resulted in this review of the status of the 126 taxa in the genus Carex occuring in the state of Arkansas, USA.  A list of these taxa provides frequency and habitat data.  County dot maps (currently best provided by Hyatt (ibid) show known distribution.  The list gives additional information all Arkansas taxa, especially on rare species.  Synonyms, excluded taxa, and possible additions to the flora of Arkansas are all addressed.  

Resumen

            O en espanol, de Hyatt (1998) en parte, "recientes recolecciones estudios de especimenes de herbaria de herbario dieron como resultado esta revision del estatus de los 126 taxa del genero Carex del estado de Arkansas, USA.  Una lista de estos taxa ofrece datos of frecuencia y habitat, mientras que los mapas de condados muestran la dirtribucion conocida.  La lista da informacion adicional de todos de taxa de Arkansas, y ortras tambien, especialment de especies raras, de taxa considerados raros previamente en Arkansas, o de los taxa nuevos para Arkansas o para scientificos.  Esta trabajo es un trabajo que no es finito.  El fin es en 2011. 

Happenings 

            In 1996, about 200-300 collections per year result from the author’s efforts to expand county record data; collections occur during several trips each year.  Creation of the Arkansas flora project has impacted this project since 1999.  The author is attempting to annotate essentially every Arkansas sedge specimen in Arkansas herbaria, as well as those in other states, where possible.  I plan to prepare a treatment of the Cyperaceae for the Arkansas flora project (www.uark.edu/~arkflora/).  As a result, I'm learning more than Carex these days, while continuing to expand this work. 

            Smith (1988) recorded 88 Carex taxa, 42 of which he recorded from five or fewer counties.  See the table below for a summary.  Recall that hundreds of specimens have been reviewed or collected since 1997.

 

County or class

Number of taxa

Smith (1988)

Number of taxa

in April 1991

Number of taxa

in November 1997

Polk

34

35

55

Baxter

6

34

59, 60 by Feb. '99

Washington

32

32

37

Garland

31

31

39

Montgomery

28

28

46

Bradley

 

28

35

Faulkner

 

25

30

Newton

 

24

34

Stone

 

23

48

Hempstead

 

23

43

Ashley

 

22

38

Franklin

 

22

32

St. Francis

 

21

23

Benton

 

20

31

Saline

 

17

42

Independence

 

15

53

No. of counties with 21-30

taxa excl. those above

 

0

33

No. of counties with 16-20 taxa incl. those above

 

8

13 (5 co. with 20 taxa)

No. of co. w/ 10-15 taxa

 

14

3 (0 by 2001)

No. of co. w/ 6-9 taxa

 

23

0

No. of co. w/ 1-5 taxa

 

17

0

listed

 

13

13

 

 

 

 

As of October 10, 1997 Yell county had 13 Carex taxa, the fewest in the state.  Collections in 2000 are expected to bring that total to around 25-30.  (Note: 1997 collections probably doubled this number).  Only ten counties had 19 or fewer taxa at that time.

            The above discussion provides the groundwork for future plans.  As more county records are found, it becomes more difficult to find new records (duh!).  Past methods of visiting several poorly known counties in a single day and adding ten to 20 species to a county in a few hours collecting no longer works.  Current and future collecting centers on visiting specialized habitats to find rarer species, as ruderal, common species become well documented.  This method results in fewer collections and fewer new county records for common taxa.  The days of driving through ten counties, collecting the same five to 20 species, have given way to day visits to one or two counties with five, ten, to 20 new species added to those county’s flora.

            In (Smith) 1988, Polk County lead the state with 34 recorded taxa.  By 1997 (Hyatt 1998), Baxter County had taken the lead with 59 taxa (60 by February 1999).  Ozarkian counties, and those of the Ouachitas probably support at least 60 Carex taxa each, based on current data, and probably hold as many as 75-90 taxa.  Documenting this number (75-90) would take extensive searches for specific species in specialized habitats, but the author believes finding 75 taxa is possible in any county in the Ozarks and Ouachitas, or the upper Arkansas River valley in Arkansas. 

            Carex flora changes considerably in the West Gulf Coastal Plain and the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, area the author calls the “flatlands” (as opposed to the “mountains”).  Generally, the genus is more diverse north of Arkansas, while the number of taxa becomes fewer to the south in Louisiana.  In the flatlands, or roughly the southeast half of Arkansas (see Hyatt 1998b for physiography), fewer unique habitats exist.  More species requiring specialized habitats (northern species on the southern edge of their range, calcareous species, or species of deep, cool habitats or springs) occur in mountain counties than in the flatlands.  Mountain counties species of limited distribution include C. aggregata, C. alata, C. bromoides (this species is likely in swamps in the flatlands), C. bullata, C. conjuncta, C. davisii, C. emoryi, C. gracilescens, C. gracillima, C. hirtifolia, C. hitchcockiana, C. interior, C. laxiculmis and C. laxiflora, C. mesochorea, C. normalis, C. radiata, C. scoparia, C. shortiana, C. sparganioides, C. stricta, C. visescens, and C. willdenowii.

 

Arkansas Carex

an annotated list 

by Philip E. Hyatt 

Copyright 2012, by Philip E. Hyatt

Distribution maps published in Sida, Dec. 1998 

Index

(revised March 5, 2005)

 

Bold text indicates the taxa for which I have seen Arkansas material.  Numbers preceeding taxa indicate a count of species.  * indicates new taxa for Arkansas since 1998 publication (or undescribed taxa that do occur in Arkansas.)

@ preceding a number indicates each of ten taxa treated as possible additions to the

            flora of Arkansas

x preceding a number indicates each of 19 taxa excluded from the flora of  Arkansas

[name] brackets indicate taxa I treat as synonyms of name preceding them in the main text

'98 indicates name used in Hyatt (1998).  Names are only indexed one page.  This is for where they are 1) treated 2) listed as a synonym or 3) mentioned in passing.  That is, if a taxon is named on several pages but only treated once, only one page number is provided at this time.  Page numbering has changed through time, from a six digit number to the current 21 – 1 format to the new 2101 format.  That is, 21 – 1 is becoming 2101.  For now, this allows sections to be maintained and numbers to be kept in sequence.  In the next round of changes (NOT the current round) all pages will be sequentially listed with no gaps.

 

Note: page numbers are being revised and perhaps even removed!

 

Name                                                                                                              Page          Key

Acrocystis                                                                                                       2501

[Acutae]                                                                                                          2101

Albae                                                                                                               2528

Atratae                                                                                                            2416

Bracteosae                                                                                                      1313

[Capillares]                                                                                                    2301

1 Carex abscondita Mackenzie '98                                                              2205          Q

[C. abdita Bicknell]                                                                                       2524

2 C. aggregata Mackenzie '98                                                                      1325          K

3 C. alata Torrey '98                                                                                     1427          I

C. albicans (at species level)                                                                         2506

4 C. albicans Willdenow var. albicans '98                                                  2507          D

5 C. albicans Willdenow var. australis (L. H. Bailey) Rettig '98               2510          D

6 C. albolutescens Schweinitz '98                                                                1418          I

7 C. albursina Sheldon '98                                                                            2211          Q

8 C. amphibola Steudel '98                                                                           2226          P

 [C. amphibola Steudel var. globosa]                                                                              2232           

[C. amphibola Steudel var. turgida Fernald]                                                 2227

[C. anceps Muhlenberg]                                                                                 2212

9 C. annectens Bicknell var. annectens '98                                                 1310          K

@1 C. annectens Bicknell var. xanthocarpa (Bicknell) Wiegand                1310

10 C. arkansana L. H. Bailey '98                                                                 1322          K

[C. artitecta Mackenzie]                                                                                2507

* 11 C. aureolensis spp. nov. sensu Reznicek & Ford                                2413          L

12 C. atlantica L. H. Bailey spp. atlantica '98                                             1326          H

13 C. atlantica L. H. Bailey spp. capillacea (L. H. Bailey) Reznicek '98 1326          H

14 C. austrina (Small) Mackenzie '98                                                          1324          K

x1 C. backii Boott                                                                                          2542

C. baileyi Britton                                                                                            246

15 C. basiantha Schkuhr '98                                                                         2534          M

x3 C. bicknellii Britton                                                                                 1423

[C. bicknellii Britton var. bicknellii]                                                            1423

[C. bicknellii Britton var. “Texas bicknelii”                                                 1426

[C. bicknellii Britton var. opaca F. J. Hermann]                                           1424

16 C. blanda Dewey '98                                                                                2214          Q

17 C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunell '98                                                           1420            I

18 C. bromoides Schkuhr var. bromoides '98                                              1327          H

* C. buffaloensis spp. nov  [potentially an undescribed species]                 1430

19 C. bulbostylis Mackenzie '98                                                                   2232          P

20 C. bullata Schkuhr '98                                                                              2406          L

21 C. bushii Mackenzie '98                                                                          2311          E

* 22 C. buxbaumii Wahlenberg '98                                                              2416          A

23 C. careyana Torrey '98                                                                            2217          Q

24 C. caroliniana Schweinitz '98                                                                  2311          E

25 C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow '98                                     1321          K

[C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. cephalophora]               1321

[C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. mesochorea]                  1324

x4 C. chapmanii Steudel                                                                                2216

26 C. cherokeensis Schweinitz '98                                                               2307          A

27 C. communis L. H. Bailey '98 var. communis                                        2518          D

28 C. comosa Boott '98                                                                                 2405          L

29 C. complanata Torrey & Hooker '98                                                      2307          E

[C. complanata Torrey & Hooker var. hirsutella (Bailey) Gleason]            2311

30 C. conjuncta Boott '98                                                                             1307          J

[C. convulata Mackenzie]                                                                              1319

31 C. corrugata Fernald '98                                                                          2228          P

@ C. cumulata (L. H. Bailey) Fern.                                                               14??

32 C. crawei Dewey '98                                                                                2219          R

33 C. crebriflora Wiegand '98                                                                      2206          Q

34 C. crinata Lamarck '98                                                                            2104          G

[C. crinata Lamarck var. crinita]                                                                  2104

[C. crinata Lamarck var. brevicrinis Fernald]                                              2104

x5 C. cristatella Mackenzie                                                                           1430

35 C. crus-corvi Shuttleworth ex Kuntze '98                                              1307          J

* 36 C. cumberlandensis Naczi, Kral, & Bryson                                         2205          Q

x C. dasycarpa Muhlenberg                                                                           2526

37 C. davisii Schweinitz & Torrey '98                                                         2305          O

38 C. debilis Michaux var. debilis '98                                                          2306          O

39 C. debilis Michaux var. pubera Gray '98                                                2306          D

40 C. decomposita Muhlenberg '98                                                              1312          K

* 41 C. digitalis Willdenow var. asymmetrica Fernald '98                         2208          Q

42 C. digitalis Willdenow var. digitalis '98                                                  2207          Q

43 C. digitalis Willdenow var. macropoda Fernald '98                               2208          Q

x6 C. douglasii           Boott                                                                           132

44 C. eburnea Boott '98                                                                                2528          A

@? C. edwardsiana Bridges & Orzell                                               might need to add P?

[C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey var. australis (L. Bailey) Rettig]                2511

[C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey var. muhlenbergii (Gray) Rettig]                2509

45 C. emoryi Dewey '98                                                                                2102          G

x7 C. exilis Dewey                                                                                         1327

46 C. festucacea Schkuhr '98                                                                        1416          I

[C. fissa Mackenzie var. aristata]                                                                 1311

47 C. fissa Mackenzie var. fissa '98                                                            1311          K

[C. flaccidula Steudel]                                                                                   1319

48 C. flaccosperma Dewey '98                                                                     2229          P

[C. flaccosperma Dewey var. glaucodea (Tuckerman in Olney in Gray) Kukenthal]   2230

x8 C. flava L.                                                                                                  2401

[C. floridana Schweinitz]                                                                              2514

x9 C. folliculata Linneaus                                                                                                2412

49 C. frankii Kunth '98                                                                                 2413          L

50 C. gigantea Rudge '98                                                                              2411          B

51 C. glaucescens Elliott '98                                                                         2106          N

52 C. glaucodea Tuckerman in Olney in A. Gray '98                                 2230          P

53 C. gracilescens Steudel '98                                                                      2215          Q

54 C. gracillima Schweinitz '98                                                                    2303          O

[C. grandis]                                                                                                    2407

55 C. granularis Muhlenberg '98                                                                 2208          R

56 C. gravida L. H. Bailey '98                                                                       1325          K

[C. gravida L. H. Bailey var. gravida]                                                          1325

[C. gravida L. H. Bailey var. lunelliana (Mackenzie) Hermann]                 1325

57 C. grayi Carey '98                                                                                    2408          B

[C. grayi Carey var. grayi]                                                                             2408

 [C. grayi Carey var. hispidula Fernald]                                                        2408

[C. grayii Carey (an orthorgraphic variant)                                                  2408

58 C. grisea Wahlenberg '98                                                                         2227          P

[C. grisea Wahlenberg var. amphibola (Steudel) Kukenthal]                      2226

[C. grisea Wahlenberg var. angustifolia Boott]                                            2231

[C. grisea Wahlenberg var. globosa L. H. Bailey]                                                          2232

[C. grisea Wahlenberg var. rigida L. H. Bailey]                                           2231

x10 C. gynandra Schweinitz                                                                          2104

[C. halei J. Carey ex Chapman]                                                                     2410

x11 C. haydenii Dewey                                                                                  2102

x C. heliophila Mack.                                                                                     2517

x C. heliophila (Mack.) W. A. Weber                                                           2517

[C. heterosperma Wahlenberg]                                                                      2213

59 C. hirsutella Mackenzie '98                                                                    2311          E

60 C. hirtifolia Mackenzie '98                                                                     2312          D

61 C. hitchcockiana Dewey '98                                                                    2225          E

[C. hormanthoides Fernald]                                                                           1427

[C. howei Mackenzie]                                                                                    1326

62 C. hyalina Boott '98                                                                                 1416          H

63 C. hyalinolepis Steudel '98                                                                      2402not in keys!

64 C. hystericina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow '98                                         2405          L

[C. hystricina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow (an orthographic varient)]          2405

[C. impressa (S. H. Wright) Mackenzie]                                                       2402         

[C. ignota Dewey]                                                                                                            2210

[C. incomperta Bicknell]                                                                               1326

65 C. interior L. H. Bailey '98                                                                      1328          H

66 C. intumescens Rudge '98                                                                        2409          B

[C. intumescens Rudge var. intumescens]                                                     2409

67 C. jamesii Schweinitz '98                                                                         2514          M

68 C. joorii L. H. Bailey '98                                                                          2105          X

[C. joori]                                                                                                         2105

x11 C. lacustris Willdenow                                                                           2411

[C. lacustris Willdenow var gigantea]                                                          2411

69 C. laevivaginata (Kukenth) Mackenzie '98                                            1306          J

[C. lanuginosa Michaux]                                                                               2403

70 C. latebracteata Waterfall '98                                                                 2515          M

x C. lativena S. D. Jones & G. D. Jones                                                        2526

71 C. laxiculmis Schweinitz var. copulata (Bailey) Mackenzie '98          2209          Q

72 C. laxiculmis Schweinitz var. laxiculmis '98                                         2209          Q

[C. laxiculmis Lamarck [??] var. michauxii Bailey]                                                       2210

[C. laxiflora Lamarck var. blanda (Dewey) Boott]                                       2214

[C. laxiflora Lamarck var. gracillima (Boott) Robins & Fernald]               2215

[C. laxiflora Sheldon var. latifolia Boott]                                                     2211

73 C. laxiflora Lamarck var. laxiflora '98                                                  2212          Q

[C. laxiflora Lamarck var. mutica Torrey & Asa Gray in Torrey]                                 2230

74 C. laxiflora Lamarck var. serrulata Hermann '98                                 2213          Q

75 C. leavenworthii Dewey '98                                                                                       1321            K

[C. leptalea Wahlenberg '98                                                                          2543

76 C. leptalea Wahlenberg var. leptalea                                                      2545          F

x C. leptalea Wahlenberg var. leptalea                                                         2544         

77 C. leptalea Wahlenberg var. harperi Fernald                                         2543          F

@2 C. lonchocarpa Willdenow ex Sprengel                                                 2412

78 C. longii Mackenzie '98                                                                           1418          I

79 C. louisianica L. H. Bailey '98                                                                2410          B

80 C. lupuliformis Sartwell '98                                                                    2411          B

81 C. lupulina Muhlenberg '98                                                                     2410          B

82 C. lurida Wahlenberg '98                                                                         2406          L

[C. macrokolea Steudel]                                                                                2105

? C. merritt-fernaldii Mack.                                                                          14??          I

83 C. meadii Dewey '98                                                                                2107          R

84 C. mesochorea Muhlenberg ex Willdenow '98                                       1324          K

85 C. microdonta Torrey & Hooker '98                                                      2220          R

[C. microsperma Steudel]                                                                             2230

[C. microrhyncha Mackenzie]                                                                       2524

@3 C. missouriensis P. Rothrock & Reznicek (in press)                              1427          I

[C. mohriana Mackenzie]                                                                              1326

86 C. molesta Mackenzie '98                                                                                          1422            I

87 C. molestiformis Reznicek & Rothrock '98                                           1422          I

 [C. muhlenbergii Schkuhr var. australis Olney]                                          1324

88 C. muehlenbergii Willdenow var. enervis Boott                                     1323          K

89 C. muehlenbergii Willdenow var. muhlenbergii                                    1328          K

[C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. enervis Boott] '98                                    1323

[C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. muhlenbergii] '98                                    1328

x12 C. muricata [author]                                                                                14??

90 C. muskingumensis Schweinitz '98                                                         1412          I

91 C. nigromarginata Schweinitz '98                                                           2513          D

[C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. floridana]                                            2514

[C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. muhlenbergii (Gray) Gleason]                              2514

[C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. nigromarginata]                                  2514?

92 C. normalis Mackenzie '98                                                                      1415          I

93 C. oklahomensis Mackenzie '98                                                              1305          J

94 C. oligocarpa Schkuhr '98                                                                        2221          P

95 C. opaca P. Rothrock & Reznicek '98                                                    1424          I

96 C. ouachitana Kral, Manhart, & Bryson '98                                          2221          P

97 C. oxylepis Torrey & Hooker var. oxylepis '98                                      2304          E

98 C. oxylepis Torrey & Hooker var. pubescens Underwood '98              2304          D

99 C. ozarkana Rothrock & Reznicek '98                                                   1429          I

 [C. patulifolia Dewey]                                                                                  2212

100 C. pellita Willdenow '98                                                                         2403          D

101 C. pensylvanica Lamarck '98                                                                 2516          D

[C. pensylvanica Lamarck var. pensylvanica]                                               2517

@4 C. perdentata S. D. Jones                                                                                          1322

[C. physorhyncha Liebmann]                                                                         2511

@5 C. picta Steudel                                                                                       2526          D

102 C. planispicata Naczi '98                                                                       2231          P

[C. plana Mackenzie]                                                                                     1323

103 C. planostachys Kunze '98                                                                     2526          D

x13 C. plantaginea [author]                                                                           2216

x14 C. platyphylla [author]                                                                            2518

x15 C. projecta Mackenzie                                                                            1414

104 C. prasina Wahlenberg '98                                                                    2308          O

105 C. radiata Wahlenberg (Small) '98                                                        1318          J

[C. rectior Mackenzie]                                                                                   2218

106 C. reniformis (L. H. Bailey) Small '98                                                  1417          I

107 C. retroflexa Willdenow '98                                                                   1316          J

[C. retroflexa Willdenow var. retroflexa]                                                     1316

[C. retroflexa Willdenow var. texensis (Torrey) Fernald]                            1317

* C. reznicekiibreviorsppnov [potentailly an undescribed taxon exists]      1421

[C. richii Mack.]                                                                                            1427

108 C. rosea Schkuhr '98                                                                              1319          J

[C. rosea Schkuhr var. radiata (Wahlenberg) Dewey]                                                   1318

[C. rosea Schkuhr var. minor Boott]                                                             1318

[C. rosea Willd. var. pusilla Peck ex Howe]                                                 1319

[C. rosea Schkuhr var. straminata Peck ex Howe]                                       1318

[C. rosea sensu Mackenzie]                                                                           1318

[C. ruguta Ohwi]                                                                                            ?????

x16 C. sartwellii Dewey                                                                                 1303

[C. sartwelliana Gray ex Dewey]                                                                  2221

[C. scirpoides Schkuhr]                                                                                 1326, 2515

109 C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow '98                                                  1413          I

110 C. seorsa Howe '98                                                                                 2216          H

111 C. shinnersii P. Rothrock & Reznicek '98                                           1426          I

112 C. shortiana Dewey '98                                                                          2415          I

? C. silicea Olney                                                                                           14???         I

113 C. socialis Mohlenbrock & Schwegmann '98                                       1320          J

114 C. sparganioides Muhlenberg '98                                                          1326          K

x17 C. sprengelii Dewey                                                                                ????

115 C. squarrosa Linnaeus '98                                                                     2409          F

C. stipita Muhlenberg                                                                                                      1306

 [C. stipita Muhlenberg var. oklahomensis (Mackenzie) Gleason]                 1305

[C. stipita Muhlenberg var. stipita]                                                               1306

[C. stipitata Muhlenberg]                                                                              1306

x18 C. straminea Willdenow                                                                                           1428

[C. straminea Willdenow var. crawei F. Boott]                                           1423

[C. straminea Willdenow var. meadii F. Boott]                                           1427

116 C. striatula Michaux '98                                                                         2210          Q

117 C. stricta Lamarck '98                                                                           2103          G

[C. strictor Dewey]                                                                                         ????

@6 C. styloflexa Buckley                                                                               2215          Q

[C. styloflexa Buckley var. remotifolia Wiegand]                                        2210

[C. suberata Naczi, Reznicek, B. A. Ford]                                                    2531

118 C. suberecta (Olney) Britton '98                                                           1419          J

 [C. subuniflora Steudel]                                                                                2221

119 C. swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie '98                                                       2311          D

 [C. sylvicola Webber & Ball]                                                                       1318

@ C. tenax Chapman ex Dewey                                                                     2526

@7 C. tenera Dewey                                                                                      1415

x19 C. tetanica Schkuhr                                                                                 2107

120 C. texensis L. H. Bailey '98                                                                    1317          J

x21 C. tonsa (Fernald) Bicknell                                                                     2525

* 121 C. timida Naczi & Ford                                                                       2538          M

122 C. torta Boott '98                                                                                                      2103            G

123 C. triangularis Boeckler '98                                                                  1311          K

124 C. tribuloides Wahlenberg '98                                                               1414          I

[C. tribuloides Wahlenberg var.  turbata  L. H. Bailey                                1414

[C. triceps [author]]                                                                                       2310

C. turgida                                                                                                       2227

125 C. typhina Michaux '98                                                                          2414          F

126 C. umbellata Schkuhr '98                                                                       2521          D

[C. umbellata Schkuhr var. brevirostris Boott]                                             2524

[C. varia Muhlenberg]                                                                                   2514

[C. varia Muhlenberg var. australis L. H. Bailey]                                        2509

@8 C. verrucosa Muhlenberg                                                                                          2105

127 C. virescens Muhlenberg '98                                                                  2309          D

128 C. vulpinoidea Michaux '98                                                                   1309          K

129 C. willdenowii Willdenow var. willdenowii '98                                    2513          M

Careyanae                                                                                                      2217         

[Cryptocarpae]                                                                                                                2101

Deweyanae                                                                                                     1327

Divisae                                                                                                            1302

Eucarex                                                                                                           2101

Folliculatae                                                                                                    2412

Glaucescentes                                                                                                 2105

[Gracillimae]                                                                                                 2301

Granulares                                                                                                     2218

[Griseae]                                                                                                       2221

Hallerianae                                                                                                    2526

Heleoglochin                                                                                                  1312

Hirtae                                                                                                             2401

Hirtifoliae (ined.)                                                                                           2312

Hymenochlaenae                                                                                            2301

Intermediae                                                                                                    1303

Laxiflorae                                                                                                       2201

 [Longirostres]                                                                                               2301

Lupulinae                                                                                                        2407

[Montanae]                                                                                                     2531

Multiflorae                                                                                                     1308

Oligocarpae                                                                                                    2221

Ovales                                                                                                             1401

Paludosae                                                                                                       2401

[Paniculatae]                                                                                                  1312

Paniceae                                                                                                         2107

Pendulinae                                                                                                      2105

Phacocystis                                                                                                     2101

Phaesoglochin                                                                                                                  1313

Phyllostachyae                                                                                               2531

Pictae                                                                                                              2526

Polytrichoideae                                                                                              2542

Porocystis                                                                                                       2309

[Pseudo-Cypereae]                                                                                         2404

Shortiana                                                                                                        2415

Squarrosae                                                                                                     2413

Stellulatae                                                                                                      1328

[Sylvaticae]                                                                                                    2301

[Triquetrae]                                                                                                   2312

Vesicariae                                                                                                       2402

Vignea                                                                                                             1312

[Virescentes]                                                                                                 2309

Vulpinae                                                                                                         1304

 

Phylogenetic listing

(revised March, 2005 but not revised in light of Flora of North America, vol. 23)

Two subgenera, Vignea and Carex, occur in Arkansas (see Reznicek 1990 for subgenus characteristics).  The sections within subgenus Vignea fall into two groups, separated by the characters listed below under that subgenus.  Subgenus Carex is similarly divided into five groups.  That is, all species numbered starting with 1 are in the former subgenus, while those starting with 2 are in the second.  Anthony A. Reznicek graciously provided the following organization of species within each subgenus and recommended this taxonomic placement of species within the sections (but not always the order of the species).  It follows the draft treatment of this genus for the Flora of North America treatment of this genus (ined). 

Subgenus 1: Vignea

Group 1: spikes androgynous, inflorescence branches often compound, plants more or less cespitose or short-rhizomatous.

 

Section: Vulpinae

C. oklahomensis Mackenzie

      C. stipita Muhlenberg var. oklahomensis (Mackenzie) Gleason]

C. stipita Muhlenberg

      [C. stipita Muhlenberg var. stipita]

      [C. stipitata Muhlenberg]

C. laevivaginata (Kukenth) Mackenzie

C. crus-corvi Shuttleworth ex Kuntze

C. conjuncta Boott

 

Section: Multiflorae

C. vulpinoidea Michaux

C. annectens Bicknell var. annectens

C. annectens Bicknell var. xanthocarpa

C. triangularis Boeckler

C. fissa Mackenzie var. fissa

 

Section: Heleoglochin

C. decomposita Muhlenberg

 

Section: Phaesoglochin  

C. retroflexa Willdenow 

      [C. retroflexa Willdenow var. retroflexa]

C. texensis L. H. Bailey 

      [C. retroflexa Willd. var. texensis (Torrey) Fernald]

C. radiata Wahlenberg (Small)

      [C. rosea Schkuhr var. radiata (Wahlenberg) Dewey]

      [C. rosea Schkuhr var. minor Boott]

      [C. rosea Schkuhr var. straminata Peck ex Howe]

      [C. rosea sensu Mackenzie]

      [C. sylvicola Webber & Ball]

C. rosea Schkuhr 

      [C. flaccidula Steudel]

      [C. rosea Willd. var. pusilla Peck ex Howe]

      [C. convulata Mackenzie]

C. socialis Mohlenbrock & Schwegmann

C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

 

Section: Phaesoglochin (continued)

 

C. leavenworthii Dewey

C. arkansana L. H. Bailey

C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. muhlenbergii

      [C. plana Mackenzie]

C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. enervis Boott

C. austrina (Small) Mackenzie

      [C. muhlenbergii Schkuhr var. australis Olney]

C. mesochorea Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

C. gravida L. H. Bailey

      [C. gravida L. H. Bailey var. gravida]

      [C. gravida L. H. Bailey var. lunelliana (Mackenzie) Hermann]

C. aggregata Mackenzie

C. sparganioides Muhlenberg

C. atlantica L. H. Bailey subsp. atlantica

      [C. mohriana Mackenzie]

C. atlantica L. H. Bailey subsp. capillacea (L. H. Bailey) Reznicek

      [C. howei Mackenzie]

      [C. incomperta Bicknell]

      [C. scirpoides Schkuhr]

 

Group 2: spikes various, inflorescence branches of simple spikes only, plants with long-creeping rhizomes

 

Section: Deweyanae

C. bromoides Schkuhr var. bromoides

 

Section: Stellulatae

C. interior L. H. Bailey

 

Section: Ovales

C. muskingumensis Schweinitz

C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow

C. tribuloides Wahlenberg

C. normalis Mackenzie

C. festucacea Schkuhr

C. hyalina Boott

C. reniformis (L. H. Bailey) Small

C. alata Torrey & A. Gray

C. albolutescens Schweinitz

C. longii Mackenzie

C. suberecta (Olney) Britton

C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunell

C. reznicekiibreviorsppnov (not a real name but possibly a real species)

C. molesta Mackenzie

C. molestiformis Reznicek & Rothrock

C. opaca P. Rothrock & Reznicek

C. ozarkana Reznicek & Rothrock

C. buffaloensis spp. nov.

C. shinnersii Reznicek & Rothrock

 

Subgenus II: Eucarex

 

Group 1: perigynia papillose, nerveless or more or less faintly nerved with up to 25 nerves, beaks usually short and entire

 

Section: Phacocystis (includes Acutae and Cryptocarpae)

C. emoryi Dewey

C. stricta Lamarck

      [C. strictor Dewey]

C. torta Boott

C. crinata Lamarck

      [C. crinata Lamarck var. crinita]

      [C. crinata Lamarck var. brevicrinis Fernald]

 

Section: Glaucescentes (ined.)

C. joorii L. H. Bailey

C. glaucescens Elliot

 

Section: Paniceae

C. meadii Dewey

C. tetanica Schkuhr

 

 

page 1116

 

Group 2: perigynia smooth, nerves more prominent and usually more than 25, otherwise rather like group 1.

 

Section: Laxiflorae

C. abscondita Mackenzie

C. crebriflora Wiegand

C. digitalis Willdenow var. digitalis [synonyms?, ask Bryson]

C. digitalis Willdenow var. asymmetrica

C. digitalis Willdenow var. macropoda Fernald

C. laxiculmis Schweinitz var. laxiculmis

C. laxiculmis Schweinitz var. copulata (L. H. Bailey) Mackenzie

C. striatula Michaux

      [C. ignota Dewey]

      [C. styloflexa Buckley var. remotifolia Wiegand]

      [C. laxiculmis Lamarck var. michauxii L. H. Bailey]

C. albursina Sheldon

      [C. laxiflora Sheldon var. latifolia Boott]

C. laxiflora Lamarck var. laxiflora

      [C. anceps Muhl.]

      [C. patulifolia Dewey]

C. laxiflora Lamarck var. serrulata Hermann

      [C. heterosperma Wahlenberg]

C. blanda Dewey

      [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. blanda (Dewey) Boott

C. gracilescens Steudel

      [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. gracillima (Boott) Robins & Fernald]

C. styloflexa Buckley

C. seorsa Howe

 

Section: Careyanae

C. careyana Torrey

 

Section: Granulares

C. granularis Muhlenberg

      [C. rectior Mackenzie]

C. crawei Dewey

C. microdonta Torrey & Hooker

 

Section: Oligocarpae

 

C. oligocarpa Schkuhr

C. ouachitana Kral, Manhart, & Bryson

C. hitchcockiana Dewey

C. amphibola Steudel sensu lato

      [C. grisea Wahlenberg var. amphibola (Steudel) Kukenthal]

C. grisea Wahlenberg

      [C. amphibola Steudel var. turgida Fernald]

C. corrugata Fernald

      [C. ruguta Ohwi]

C. flaccosperma Dewey

      [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. mutica Torrey & Asa Gray in Torrey]

      [C. microsperma Steudel]

C. glaucodea Tuckerman

      [C. flaccosperma Dewey var. glaucodea (Tuckerman in Olney in Gray) Kukenthal]

C. planispicata Naczi

C. bulbostylis Mackenzie

      [C. grisea Wahlenberg var. globosa L. H. Bailey]

 

Group 3: perigynia beaks short or long, but without or with only very short beak teeth, often nerved or pubescent, terminal spike often gynaecandrous.

 

Section: Hymenochlaenae

(Gracillimae, Sylvaticae, Longirostres, and Capillares)

C. gracillima Schweinitz

C. oxylepis Torrey & Hooker var. oxylepis

C. oxylepis Torrey & Hooker var. pubescens Underwood

C. davisii Schweinitz & Torrey

C. debilis Michaux var. debilis

C. debilis Michaux var. puberela Gray

C. cherokeensis Schweinitz

C. prasina Wahlenberg

 

Section: Porocystis (Virescentes)

C. virescens Muhlenberg

C. swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie

C. complanata Torrey & Hooker

C. hirsutella Mackenzie

      [C. complanata Torrey & Hooker var. hirsutella (Bailey) Gleason

C. caroliniana Schweinitz

C. bushii Mackenzie

 

Section: Hirtifoliae (ined.)

C. hirtifolia Mackenzie

 

Group 4: perigynia mostly long-beaked, bodies usually loosely enveloping achenes and ovoid to lanceolate, beaks often conspicuously stiff-toothed, style usually bony and more or less persistent, terminal spike usually staminate, leaves and sheathes often with prominent transverse nerves.

 

Section: Paludosae

C. hyalinolepis Steudel

C. pellita Willdenow

 

Section: Vesicariae (Pseudo-Cypereae)

C. hystericina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

      [C. hystricina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow (an orthographic varient)]

C. comosa Boott

C. lurida Wahlenberg

C. bullata Schkuhr

 

Section: Lupulinae

C. grayi Carey

     [C. grayi Carey var. hispidula]

C. intumescens Rudge

      [C. intumescens Rudge var. intumescens]

C. louisianica Bailey

C. lupulina Muhlenberg

C. lupuliformis Sartwell

C. gigantea Rudge

 

Section: Squarrosae

C. frankii Kunth

C. squarrosa Linnaeus

C. typhina Michaux

 

Section: Shortiana

C. shortiana Dewey

 

Section: Atratae

C. buxbaumii Wahlenberg

 

 

Group 5: perigynia short-beaked, often pubescent, bodies usually tightly enveloping achenes and globose or short-ovoid, beaks with teeth short or obscure, terminal spikelet staminate.

 

Section: Acrocystic (Montanae)

C. albicans Willdenow var. albicans

      [C. artitecta Mackenzie]

      [C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey var. muhlenbergii (Gray) Rettig]

      [C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. muhlenbergii (Gray) Gleason]

C. albicans Willdenow var. australis (L. H. Bailey) Rettig

      [C. physorhyncha Liebmann]

      [C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey var. australis (L. H. Bailey) Rettig]

      [C. varia Muhlenberg var. australis L. H. Bailey]

C. nigromarginata Schweinitz

      [C. floridana Schweinitz]

      [C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. nigromarginata]

      [C. varia Muhlenberg]

C. pensylvanica Lamarck

      [C. pensylvanica Lamarck var. pensylvanica]

C. communis L. H. Bailey

C. umbellata Schkuhr

      [C. umbellata Schkuhr var. brevirostris Boott]

      [C. microrhyncha Mackenzie]

      [C. abdita Bicknell]

 

Section: Hallerianae

C. planostachys Kunze

 

Section: Albae

C. eburnea Boott

 

Section: Phyllostachyae

C. willdenowii Willdenow var. willdenowii

C. basiantha Steudel

C. jamesii Schweinitz

C. latebracteata Waterfall

 

Section: Polytrichoideae

C. leptalea Wahlenberg var. leptalea (north Arkansas)

C. leptalea Wahlenberg var. harperi (south Arkansas)

 

 

Keys to the Carex species for Arkansas

 

revised Feb. 18, 2002 as ac10.1

 

(based, in part, on Jones 1995, Radford 1968, Smith 1994, Steyermark 1963, and various publications)

 

Key A

 

 

Primary Key: starting point

 

this sub-key is complete and useable

 

1. Perigynia 10 mm long or longer (a borderline species, C. lurida, may have perigynia up to 9 mm long, rarely 10 mm; it has smaller, more tightly packed perigynia than other species keyed using this couplet) ....................................................................….... Key B

1. Perigynia less than 10 mm long ….................................................................……..... 2

2. Widest leaves greater than 10 mm wide; selected species can be keyed here ……… ……………………………………...…….………………………. Key C [create later]

2. Widest leaves 10 mm or less wide; (all species can be keyed here) ……….……… 3

3. Plants with hairs; hairs present on some part of the plants (the perigynia may or may not have hairs for this couplet; look at perigynia, base of leaves and culms, on sheaths, bracts, etc.), stigmas and styles almost always 3 in all species listed here .… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4

4. Perigynia hairy …..…………………………………………………….…. Key D

4. Perigynia glabrous (roughened, toothed, or serrulate margins of beaks are included here); other parts of plant hairy …...…………………...………. Key E

3. Plants glabrous (roughened, toothed, or serrulate margins of beaks are included here); hairs absent on plants (perigynia, leaves, bracts, and culms); stigmas and styles 2 or 3 …………………………………………………………………...…… 5

5. Spikelets one per culm (species with one or more per culm may be keyed using either couplet) ......................................................................……………....... Key F

5. Spikelets two or more per culm ......................................................................... 6

6. Stigmas and styles 2; perigynia generally flattened (terete or winged in some species); achenes lenticular (lens-shaped, flattened) .……………...………….. 7

7. Spikelets about 6-20 or more times as long as wide ………………………… Key G

7. Spikelets about 1-3 (-4) times as long as wide ………..………………………...…. 8

8. Staminate flowers located at the base of some or all of the spikelets (that is, all or only the terminal spike gynecandrous) ………………..…………………………… 9

9. Terminal spike with staminate flowers below, pistillate above (rarely nearly all staminate or nearly all pistillate); lower spikelets all pistillate; perigynia lacking wings ……………………………………….…………………………...….. Key H

9. All spikelets with staminate flowers below, pistillate above; perigynia with marginal wings …………………………………………………..………….. Key I

8. Staminate flowers located at the tip of some or all of the spikelets (that is,  androgynous), look for a point of small scales without perigynia at the tip of the spikelet ………….……………………………………………………..…………. 10

10. Perigynia spongy-thickened at the base resulting in wrinkling at the base of the perigynia in most taxa (best seen with magnification, but can be felt with a dissecting needle); achenes filling only the upper portion of the perigynia; perigynia radiating or reflexed downward ...................................................... Key J

10. Perigynia not spondy-thickened at base (base of mature perigynia hard); achenes almost filling the bodies of the perigynia; outer perigynia ascending ……. …………………………………………………………………………….... Key K

6. Stigmas and styles 3; perigynia obviously or obscurely triangular; achenes triogynous (3-sided) ……………………………………………………..….……..…. 11

11. Style and achene of same texture, style continuous with the achene, more or less persistent (not withering with age), of the same bony texture as the achene; perigynia 5 or more mm long (note: the style character used here also applies to all species with perigynia 10 or more mm long ………………………..……………..…………. Key L

11. Style and achene of differing textures, style jointed to the achene, withering with age, not bony; perigynia of any size ………………………………………………... 12

12. Achenes golf ball on tee shaped, with achene constricted at the base, with sides convex above (like a golfball on a tee with a beak; the golf ball can be slightly flattened in some species); staminate scales with margins united at the base ….…… ……………………………………………………………………………….. Key M

12. Achenes not golf ball on tee shaped, but more elongated, tapering at the base, with sides flat or concave above; staminate scales with margins free at the base ...… ………………………………...…………………………...…………...…………. 13

13. Bracts subtending pistillate spikelets sheathless, of the lower ones short-sheathing, the sheath about 0 - 3 mm long; that is, look for bracts attached directly to the stem at a point, rather than enclosing the sheath for a distance …….. Key N

13. Bracts subtending pistillate spikelets, at least the lower ones, long-sheathing (the sheath about 5 - 10 mm long) that is, look for bracts which join a hollow leaf sheath which surrounds the stem for a distance ……..………………...……….. 14

 

Key A

 

 

14. Pistillate spikelets linear, elongate, drooping …………..…………….. Key O

14. Pistillate spikelets oblong, short, usually erect ……………..…………….. 15

15. Leaf blades filiform (very thin and wiry); bracts subtending the pistillate spikelets bladeless or nearly so …………..………….…….. C. eburnea Boott

15. Leaf blades broader; bracts subtending the pistillate spikelets well-developed ………………………..………………………...……………….. 16

16. Beak of perigynium hyaline (thin, papery, somewhat translucent) …..… ……....………………………………………… C. cherokeensis Schweinitz

16. Beak of perigynium not hyaline, or barely so at the tip (green at or near tip) ………………………………………………………….…………….. 17

17. Terminal spike with pistillate flowers toward the tip and staminate flowers toward the base (rarely all pistillate) ………...……………………. ……………………………………………….. C. buxbaumii Wahlenberg

17. Terminal spike with entirely staminate or with a few perigynia at the base (note that the terminal spike may sometimes be overtopped by longer or stalked pistillate spikes) ……………………………………………... 18

18. Plants with long creeping rhizomes …………………... Key R (in part)

18. Plants without rhizomes (cespitose) …………………………...…… 19

19. Beak of perigynia straight in all species, when present; perigynia with many fine, impressed nerves (use 20x lens), the space between the veins narrow (look for many tightly packed longitudinal striations on the face of the perigynia, the space between the nerves narrower or about the same width as the nerves themselves); includes C. flaccosperma relatives (plants in this group tend to have larger, plumper perigynia), C. oligocarpa (2 species with perigynia similar to species in  Keys Q and R) ..……………………………………. Key P

19. Beak of perigynia straight or curved in various species; perigynia with few (some species) to many (most species) strong, raised nerves (use 20x lens), the space between the veins broad or nerveless (the spaces wider than the nerves, if nerves are present); includes species with generally (but not all species with) smaller perigynia than Key P, C. blanda relatives (different species in this group tend to have variously elongated perigynia with pointed and hooked (in some species) beaks on the perigynia), C. granularis relatives(3 species with small (to 4.5 mm long), tightly packed perigynia) .……… Key 20

Note: couplet 19 is unusually long because this set of characters is difficult to learn, especially in briefly written keys.  Once the species are learned, most plants can immediately be identified to species, or a species pair, in the field.

 

 

Key A

20. Perigynia tapering at the base, triangular in cross section, the achene tightly wrapped by the perigynium; perigynia not overlapping, partly overlapping, or tightly overlapping .…….. Key Q

18. Perigynia rounded at the base, nearly circular in cross section, the achene loosely wrapped by the perigynium; perigynia tightly overlapping in all species …………………………………….. Key R

 

 

Key B

 

(revised February 12, 2002)

 

Key for plants with perigynia 10 mm or more long

 

1. Perigynia with one or more hairs, usually very hairy (Arkansas material); spikelets forming a "medival mace" shape, tightly packes in a globose shape with many points (beaks) …………………………...….. C. grayi Carey "var. hispidula sensu Fernald"

1. Perigynia glabrous (hairless); spikelets usually not globose and without a "medival mace" shape (various species with perigynia with a variety of angles of orientation, perygynia up to 2 — 4 + times as long as wide; see also C. intumescens which usually has a globose spikelet but  not compacted into a mace shape …………………………. 3

2. Perigynia subulate or lanceolate (awl shaped or tapering to an apex), tapering gradually into the beak; perhaps in southern Arkansas ..........………………………… …………………………………................…. C. lonchocarpa Willdenow ex Sprengel

2. Perigynia broader, abruptly contracted into a beak; species known to occur in Arkansas ……………………………………………................................................... 3

3. Perigynia shiny; pistillate spikelets globose or nearly so, forming a spherical shape of pointed perigynia, but the perigynia do not appear to form an elongated finger sized and shaped group; plants lacking stolons; achenes sessile, the style often straight, sometimes bent or coiled ......................................... C. intumescens Rudge

3. Perigynia dull; pistillate spikelets oblong to cylindric, forming an elongated finger sized and shaped group; plants with long stolons; achenes broadly stipitate (stalked), the style abruptly bent .....................…...................................................... 4

4. Achene bodies much longer than wide, the sides shallowly concave, the angles not prominently knobbed (see alternate couplet for comments); common species of ruderal (disturbed) wetlands and swamps ………………….............................. 5

5. Plants with stems arising one to few together from elongated rootstocks; leaf blades mostly 3 — 5 (— 6) mm wide; staminate spikelet generally with a long peduncle (about 2 — 12 cm long); achene body 2.5 — 3.0 mm long .…..…...…. …………………………………………………....... C. louisianica L. H. Bailey

5. Plants cespitose with several stems arising together; leaf blades mostly 5 — 12 (— 16) mm wide; staminate spikelet generally with a short peduncle (about 1.0 — 3.5 cm long); achene body 3.5 — 4.0 mm long ................. C. lupulina Willd.

4. Achene bodies about as wide or wider than long, the sides deeply concave, the angles prominently knobbed (this character should be seen to be appreciated; species in this couplet have knobs which stick out almost like miniature embedded golfballs; if in doubt, use alternate couplet); infrequently to rarely collected species of swamps, rarely ruderal …………........................................... 6

6. Perigynia ascending at maturity, the beak about 1 times as long as the body; achene body about as wide as long, about 2.0 — 2.2 mm wide; perigynia superficially similar to C. lupulina .……………………........................................... C. lupuliformis Sartwell

6. Perigynia widely spreading at maturity, the beak about 2 (— 3) times as long as the body; achene body wider than long, about 2.5 — 3.5 mm wide; perigynia superficially similar to C. crus-corvi but much larger and robust, fewer per spike ………………...…. .…………….……………………………………………………….. C. gigantea Rudge

 

 

Key C

 

Key for plants with wide leaves here (10 mm or greater)

 

Key to be completed at a later date: not needed to key species at this time.

 

 

Key D

 

Key to be added for plants with hairy perigynia

(plants may or may not be glabrous)

 

This key needs work in the second half.

 

1. Spikelets 1 per culm; not yet found in Arkansas ..……………........ Carex picta Steudel

1. Spikelets 2 or more per culm; known from Arkansas ...…………………………...….. 2

2. Achenes constricted/rounded at the base, with side convex above (like a golf ball on a tee with a beak; the bulging achene (golf ball) portion can be slightly flattened ..… 3

3. Plants with peduncled pistillate spikes produced from the basal nodes as well as more or less sessile pistillate spikes from nodes immediately below the staminate spike; most or all of the flowering culms (after April look for old fruiting stalks or peduncles) very short, mostly 0.1‑2.0 dm tall, erect; the lower pistillate spikes hidden in the lower leaves ……………………………………………………......... 4

4. Perigynia shorter, 2.5‑3.0 mm long; culms dimorphic (short and very short, all less than 10 cm long); the fertile culms bear not only pistillate spikes immediately below the staminate, but also bear pistillate spikes on elongate peduncles from the basal nodes of the fertile culms ........................................... C. umbellata Schkuhr

4. At least the larger perigynia 3.2‑4.0 mm long; culms not dimorphic (intergrading in length from short to various shorter (less than 10 cm) lengths; all spikes complete with staminate and pistillate spikelets, since there are no peduncled, basal pistillate spikes ............................................. C. nigromarginata Schweinitz

3. Plants with pistillate spikes only at nodes immediately below the staminate spike; most of the flowering culms long, mostly to 3 dm tall, erect or drooping; the pistillate spikes conspicuous, often as long as the leaves ................................…..... 5

5. Main body (excluding any base and beak) of perigynium suborbicular (about as long as wide) round in cross section at maturity ..………….................................. 6

6. Plants cespitose (tufted in clumps, roots fibrous), lacking long rhizomes or stolons; ligule prominent, longer than wide; leaves about (2.5‑) 3‑7 mm wide .......................................................... C. communis L. H. Bailey var. communis

6. Plants not cespitose, but with long rhizomes or stolons; ligule short, much wider than   wide; leaves about 1‑3 mm wide ............ C. pensylvanica Lamarck

5. Main body (excluding any base and beak) of perigynium oblong‑ovoid to elliptical (about 1.5 as long as wide), obtusely triangular in cross section at maturity .........………………………………………………………………......... 7

7. Leaves about (2.5‑) 3‑7 mm wide; ligule prominent, longer than wide (measure length on leaf, not the 2 mm wide flap); perigynia about 1.5 mm thick .......................................................... C. communis L. H. Bailey var. communis

7. Leaves about 0.5‑3.0 mm wide; ligule short, much wider than long; perigynia about 0.5‑1.3 mm thick .....….............................................................................. 8

8. Plants with long stolons or rhizomes (not cespitose); staminate spike usually with a short stalk; perigynia whitish green, 2.5‑3.5 mm long; conspicuous, not nearly covered by scales ................................. C. albicans Willdenow var. australis (L. Bailey) Rettig

8. Plants without long stolons or rhizomes (plants cespitose); staminate spike sessile (without a short stalk); perigynia olive to dull green (3‑4 mm long in one species); inconspicuous, nearly covered by scales ......................................................................... 9

9. Perigynia about 2.0‑3.5 mm long; staminate scales often dark purplish or purple red; pistillate spikes usually not bunched together, the lowest two attached (2.2‑) 3.3‑7.0 (‑11.8) mm apart; staminate spike 3‑15 mm long; scales of the staminate spike obtuse (blunt) or short‑pointed, closely appressed; flowering culms upright, rather stiff .….. ………...............................................................  C. albicans Willdenow var. albicans

9. Perigynia larger, (2.6‑) 3‑4 mm or more long; staminate scales often green or green brown (sometimes purplish or purple‑red); pistillate spikes, at least the upper ones, bunched together, the lowest two attached 2.2‑3.8 mm apart; staminate spike 3‑8 mm long; scales of the staminate spike pointed, ascending or loosely appressed; flowering culms curving, arching, or spreading, weak . .............. C. nigromarginata Schweinitz

2. Achenes tapering/slanted at the base, with flattish or concave sides ………….…….. 10

10. Perigynia 1.8-2.5 mm long ..............................................................................…… 11

11.
Pistillate spikes broadly oblong-cylindric to oblong-globose, rounded or broadened at the base, mainly 4-15 mm long, mainly 1.5-4 times longer than broad; leaves usually longer than the flowering culms; lowest pistillate bract setaceous (bristle like), 0.5 mm wide, 2 times as long as the inflorescence; achenes bent-apiculate …………………........................….......... C. swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie

11. Pistillate spikes linear, narrowed to the base, mainly (11-) 15-40 mm long, 4-10 times longer than broad; leaves usually shorter than the flowering culms; lowest pistillate bract leaf like, 0.5-3.0 mm wide, a little longer than the inflorescence; achenes straight-apiculate .….................... C. virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

10. Perigynia 3.0-8.3 mm long .….......….................................................................... 12

12. Perigynia 4.7-8.3 mm long; pistillate spikelets elongate, linear to cylindric, at least the lower ones drooping; lower leaf sheaths strongly tinged purplish ..............……... ........................................................................... C. debilis Michx. var. pubera Gray

12. Perigynia 3.5-5.0 mm long; pistillate spikelets short, oblong to linear, erect; lower leaf sheaths not strongly tinged purplish .........................................………............ 13

13.Bracts subtending pistillate spikelets sheathless, or the lower ones short-sheathing (the sheath about 0-3 (-5) mm long[need to review specimens of these two species and get better characters] ....................................................……...... 14

14. Leaves 1-2 mm wide, glabrous or scabrellous; perigynia minutely pubescent ….............................................. C. planostachys Kunze[placement in question]

14. Leaves 2-10 mm wide, glabrous or softly pilose; perigynia pilose with hairs about 0.2-0.3 mm long ..........……………………………………………….... 15

15. Leaves glabrous ………………….. C. pellita Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

15. Leaves hairy ........................................................... C. hirtifolia Mackenzie

13. Bracts subtending pistillate spikelets, at least the lower ones, long-sheathing (the sheath about 5-10 mm or more long) ..……………….…………………………………. ………………………….... C. oxylepis Torr. & Hook.var. pubescens Underwood

 

 

Key E

 

Key to be added for hairy plants with glabrous perigynia

 

1. Topmost (terminal) flower spike with staminate (male) flowers only ...........……….... 2

2. Pistillate spikelets with few (1-8) perigynia; base of plant brown; pistillate spikes erect, 8-25 mm long; leaf sheaths with hairs …..................... C. hitchcockiana Dewey

2. Pistillate spikelets with greater than 9 perigynia; base of plant purple or red-purple at base; pistillate spikes spreading of drooping; leaf sheaths glabrous .......... ..........................................................................…........... C. debilis Michx. var. debilis

1. Topmost (terminal) flower spike with pistillate (female) flowers in the upper part and staminate (male) flowers at the base ........................................………........................... 4

4. Spikelets long and skinny (linear to narrowly oblong), 6-8 times longer than broad, 18-45 mm long .....................................................................................…………..... 5

5. Perigynia 3.5-4.0 mm long, broadest near the middle, not inflated, but close to the achene, narrowly ellipsoid; upper pistillate scales acuminate to short-cuspidate; spikelets mainly 3-5 mm thick .................. C. oxylepis Torr. & Hook. var. oxylepis

5. Perigynia 4.0-5.0 mm long, broadest below the middle, inflated and loose around the achene, oblong-ovoid; upper pistillate scales long-cuspidate (with a long awn about half as long as the main body of the scale); spikelets mainly 5-7 mm thick ................................................................................. C. davisii Schweinitz & Torrey

4. Spikelets shorter and broader (narrowly ovoid to short cylindric), 1.25-4 times longer than broad, all except the terminal (top) one 5-20 mm long ..................…………...... 6

6. Perigynia more or less flattened ventrally, rounded or obtuse apically ....………... 7

7. Leaf blades glabrate (becoming glabrous (hairless) with age) or nearly so ………............................................................... C. complanata Torrey & Hooker

7. Leaf blades moderately to densely pubescent ................. C. hirsutella Mackenzie

6. Perigynia more or less flattened ventrally, rounded or obtuse apically ………....... 8

8. Perigynia 2.5-3.5 (-4) mm long, olive-green or brownish; pistillate scales awned (awn about 0.5-1.5 mm long), sparsely pilose; awns making spikelets rough looking (superficially similar to C. complanata or species of the section Ovales);leaf blades (especially the lower ones) moderately to rather densely soft pubescent ................................................................................................ C. bushii Mackenzie

8. Perigynia 2.0-2.2 mm long, brownish or brownish green; pistillate scales obtuse or acute, glabrous; spikelets smooth looking (superficially similar to a miniature fruit of jack-in-the-pulpit);leaf blades glabrate or nearly so .............……………... ....................................................................................... C. caroliniana Schweinitz

 

 

Key F

 

(Modified from Smith's (1994) Key E)

 

Glabrous plants with 1 spikelet per culm

 

1. Perigynia strongly inflated; the beak obvious (about 2 - 4 mm long) and spreading; spikelet about 10 - 20 mm thick ............................................................................…...... 2

2. Achene body 2 - 3 times as long as wide, with flattish sides; style very strongly sinuous (abruptly bent below), persistent; perigynium prominently red-dotted on the inner surface; pistillate scates acute to short-awned ............................ C. squarrosa L.

2. Achene body 1.75 - 2 times as long as wide, with concave sides; style straight below, tending to be deciduous and leaving a small (about 0.2-0.3 mm) apiculation; perigynia not or only slightly red-dotted on the inner surface; pistillate scales obtuse ………… ……………………………………………………....................….. C. typhina Michx.

1. Perigynia not inflated; beak absent or up to 0.4 mm long, not obvious and not spreading; spikelet about (1-) 2-7) mm thick ...........................................................…... 3

3. Perigynia less than 4 mm long; plants of the Ozark and Ouachita regions …………. ……………………………………..……...….……… C. leptalea Wahl. var. leptalea

3. Perigynia more than 4 mm long; plants of the West Gulf Coastal Plain region ……. …...……………...…………….……… C. leptalea Wahl. var. harperi (Fern.) Stone

 

 

Key G

 

(modified from Smith's (1994) Key A)

 

Key to glabrous plants with 2 styles and stigmas,

and spikelets 6-20 times as long as wide

 

1. Pistillate scales with hyaline or pale brownish margins, attenuate-aristate (a long bristle like awn), the tip projecting about 3 - 6 mm beyond the perigynium; scales mostly 2 - 4 times as long as the perigynia; pistillate spikes usually nodding or arching …………..… ………………………………………………………...……….. Carex crinita Lamarck

1. Pistillate scales with reddish-brown margins, obtuse or acute (without awns or with short awns), the scales about equalling (more or less) the perigynium; pistillate spikes erect or nodding (in C. torta) …………………………………………………………. 2

2. At least the lower mature pistillate spikes widely spreading, arching, or drooping at maturity; perigynium tapering gradually to the beak; tip of mature perigynia twisted or bent conspicuously when dry …………..…………………………….... C. torta Boott

2. Pistillate spikes erect or definitely ascending at maturity; perigynium abruptly narrowed to the beak; tip of mature perigynia when dry not twisted, but more or less flat and straight …………………….........…............................................................... 3

3. Plants of wet limey meadows of the Ozarks; at least some of the lowest leaf sheaths consisting of thread-like or fiber-like parts on the inner (vertral) side; “ladder”-like lower sheaths fibrillose; inner ventral portion red-tinged; scarious ligule shaped like an inverted V shape ..................................................................... C. stricta Lamarck

3. Plants of banks of streams or prairies; lowest leaf sheaths without thread-like or fiber-like parts; inner, vertral portion of lower sheaths whitish, not scarious, the lower portion not fibrillose; inner ventral portion dark purple; ligule straight across or as a shallow U shape .................................................................. C. emoryi Dewey

 

 

Key H

 

Styles and stigmas 2; spikelets 3-4 x as long as wide;

terminal spikelet with staminate flowers below

 

1. Perigynia about 4.0 — 5.5 mm long, narrow (1/6 — 1/4 as wide as long), appressed ascending ........................................................... C. bromoides Schkuhr var. bromoides

1. Perigynia about 2.0 — 3.5 mm long, wide (1/2 — 3/4 as wide as long), horizontally spreading or reflexed .……………………...................................................................... 2

2. Perigynia finely nerved or nerveless or few-nerved at the base on the ventral side; lower pistillate spikelets about 4 — 6 mm long, about as long as wide to twice as long as wide; achenes about 1.25 mm long, wider than long to about 0.2 mm longer than wide; rare (or, for one species, extirpated) in north or central Arkansas ......…........... 3

3. Perigynia nerveless or few-nerved at the base on the ventral side; lower pistillate spikelets about 4 mm long, about as long as wide; achenes about 1.25 mm long; rarely encountered species of fens in north central Arkansas on the Salem Plateau ………………...............................………………………… C. interior L. H. Bailey

3. Perigynia finely nerved; lower pistillate spikelets about 4 — 6 mm long, generally longer than wide; achenes about 1.25 mm long, as wide as long to about 0.2 mm longer than wide; historic species found in the Little Rock vicinity in the late 1800's ……………………………………………….................................... C. seorsa Howe

2. Perigynia strongly nerved on the ventral side; lower pistillate spikelets about 6 — 12 mm long, about 2 — 3 times as long as wide; achenes about 1.75 mm long, longer than wide .......................................................................……………………............... 4

4. Leaf blades about 2 — 4 mm wide; perigynia about 2.5 — 3.5 mm long ......……… .................................................................. C. atlantica L. H. Bailey subsp. atlantica

4. Leaf blades about 1.0 — 1.5 mm wide; perigynia about 2.0 — 2.8 mm long .....…... ....................... C. atlantica L. H. Bailey subsp. capillacea (L. H. Bailey) Reznicek

 

 

Key I

 

Section Ovales; glabrous plants with 2 styles and stigmas;

all the spikelets with staminate flowers at the base

 

 

1. Spikes 15 - 25 mm long, fusiform and narrowed at both ends, 3 - 4 times as long as wide; perigynia (6.5-)7.0 -10 mm long, lanceolate; fruiting portion of the inflorescence 5 - 8 cm long .......................................……………….. C. muskingumensis Schweinitz

1. Without the above combinations; spikes either shorter or, if as long, of a different shape; perigynia either shorter and/or of a different shape ..............…………………... 2

2. Perigynia with oblanceolate bodies mostly less than 1.5 mm wide  (see second couplet 3 for an exception;; note that Steyermark uses "perigynia lanceolate  or ovate-lanceolate, 3 - 4 times as long as wide" at this point) ……………………………...... 3

3. Sterile leafy culms abundant and strongly developed with spreading leaf-blades, these not clustered at the tip of the culm; main leaf-blades 2.5 - 8 mm wide; mature perigynia 1 - 1.5 mm wide, strongly winged, the wing rather abruptly narrowed just below the middle part; leaf-sheaths loose; common in Arkansas ......................…….. .....…………………........................................................ C. tribuloides Wahlenberg

3. Sterile leafy culms few with ascending leaf-blades clustered at the tip of the culm; main leaf-blades 1 - 3 (-3.5)mm wide; mature perigynia 1.2 - 2.6 mm wide, the wing continuous to the base; leaf-sheaths closely enveloping the culms; doubtful for Arkansas ................................................…....... C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow

2. Perigynia with ovate, obovate, orbicular, or even reniform bodies 1.5 - 6.0 mm wide; Steyermark uses  "perigynia ovate or obovate or suborbicular, nearly as broad as long or, when longer than broad, then 1 1/4-2 1/2 times as long as wide") ......................... 4

4. Species with obovate perigynia, sheaths green and nerved near the summit, and with relatively narrow achenes .................................................................................. 5

5. Pistillate scales sharply acuminate or with awns up to 0.8 mm long; achene positioned about 0.5 mm above the base of the perigynium; possible in north central Arkansas, as it is known from a few miles from the state line in limestone sinks ............................................................................................... C. alata Torrey

5. Pistillate scales acute or obtuse; achene positioned at the base of the perigynium; plants of various species occuring statewide ........................................................... 6

6. Inflorescences arched or nodding, 2.3 -8.4 cm long, their spikes strongly separated; spikes attenuate at base, male portion of well developed spikes 2-11 mm long; pistillate scales acute …………………….................………………………………………......... 7

7. Sheaths finely papillose (use 30x magnification), their summit truncate and prolonged 1-4 mm above the base of the leaf blade; pistillate scates white hyaline; plants of coastal sands (not known in Arkansas) ..........…………....... C. silicea Olney

7. Sheaths smooth (not papillose), their summit concave and only reaching the base of the leaf blade; pistillate scates reddish-brown; plants of seeps, pond edges, and seepy roadside ditches from the southern Ozarks, to the northern Gulf Coastal Plain .....…… ...……............................................................... C. ozarkana P. Rothrock & Reznicek

6. Inflorescences stiff, erect, 1.0-4.5 cm long, their spikes slightly separated or congested; spikes rounded to acute at base, male portion of spikes less than 2 mm long; pistillate scales acute or obtuse .............................................................……………………......... 8

8. Beaks of perigynia spreading, slender and abruptly contracted from the perigynium body, the distance from beak to tip of top of achene 1.0-2.0 mm; styles with a strong lateral sinuousity (crooked) at the base; sheaths smooth ...................………………..... .......................................................................................... C. albolutescens Schweinitz

8. Beaks of perigynia appressed-ascending, triangular and gradually tapered from the perigynium body or the distance from beak to tip of top of achene greater than or equal to 2.0 mm; styles straight or occasionally sinuous (crooked) near the middle; sheaths often finely papillose (use 30x magnification) .............……………..........…. 9

9. Perigynia nerveless on inner face; broadest leaves 3-6 mm wide, their sheaths truncate at the summit and extending 0-3 mm above the base of the leaf blade; plants not currently known for Arkansas ......….…. C. cumulata (L. H. Bailey) Fern.

9. Perigynia nerved on inner face; broadest leaves 2-4 mm wide, their sheaths concave at the summit and not prolonged above the base of the leaf blade; plants throughout Arkansas, except absent in north central Arkansas ……………………………..... 10

10. Pistillate scales white-hyaline and obtuse; achenes 0.75-1.00 mm wide, its apiculum less than 0.4 mm long; sheaths sparsely to densely pappillose (use 30x) ................................................................................................. C. longii Mackenzie

10. Pistillate scales reddish-brown and acute; achenes 0.9-1.2 mm wide, its apiculum 0.4-0.7 mm long; sheaths glabrous or rarely pappillose (use 30x) ........... .................................................................... C. ozarkana P. Rothrock & Reznicek

4. Species without the above combination of characters; of the southern "brevoir-type" .... ……………………………………………………………………………………….... 11

11. Plants colonial from short-creeping rhizomes; vegetative culms numerous and conspicuous, strongly tristichous and 15-35 leaves when fully developed; achenes 1.6--2 times as long as wide (and 0.9--1.2 mm wide); larger spikes with 5--25 (--30) perigynia …….………………………………………………………C. hyalina Boott

11. Plants definitely clumping (though rhizomes may  appear elongate in old clumps); vegetative culms few, inconspicuous, and usually with fewer than 15 (--17) leaves, thus not strikingly tristichous;  achenes 1--1.6 (--1.7) times as long as wide (and 0.9--2.2 mm wide); larger spikes with ca. 15--80 perigynia ………………..…...………. 12

12. Perigynia finely granular-papillose (30-40x), the body reniform, 0.6--0.9 times as long as wide (and 3.2--4.9 mm wide); lower pistillate scales obtuse-rounded …...… …………………………………………………C. reniformis (L. H. Bailey) Small

12. Perigynia smooth, the body broadly ovate, elliptic, more or less orbicular, or rarely slightly obovate, (0.7--) 0.9--1.7 times as long as wide (and 1.5--6.1 mm wide); lower pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate-awned ..…………………………..…. 13

13. Larger perigynia 2.5--5.5 mm long, 1.5--3.6 mm wide, with beaks usually 0.7--1.6 (--1.8) mm long; perigynia often plumply planoconvex or concavo-convex, the bulge formed by the achene prominent only on the abaxial face ………………. 14

14. Leaf sheaths finely papillose at high magnification (30-40x); perigynia membranaceous, the brown achene clearly visible through the translucent adaxial face of the perigynium at maturity; usually at least some perigynia with the wings and base of beak  irregularly erose, scalloped, or even with irregular teeth and often not symmetric ………………………………………….…….. 15

15. Perigynia strongly and evenly 4--8-nerved over the achene on the adaxial face, (4.5--) 5.1--5.5 mm long, wings usually strongly reddish-brown tinged; pistillate scales usually reddish-brown, usually (1--) 1.4--2.3 mm shorter than the perigynia; anthers (2.4--) 2.8--4.2 mm long ..………... C. bicknellii Britton

15. Perigynia nerveless or faintly and irregularly 0--5 (--6)-nerved over the achene on the adaxial face, (2.3--) 2.5--5.2 (--5.5) mm long, wings yellowish-tinged or greenish, pistillate scales yellowish-tinged or greenish, 0.2—1.3 mm shorter than the perigynia; anthers (1--) 1.3--2.6 mm long …….………..…. 16

16. Perigynia 2.5--3.4 mm wide; distance from summit of achene to tip of beak 1.8--3.1 mm; achenes 1.3--1.5 mm wide; plants in Kansas, Minnesota to Ohio, north and east ….…...……………... C. merritt-fernaldii Mackenzie

16. Perigynia 1.5--2.4 (--2.6) mm wide; distance from summit of achene to tip of beak 0.8--1.5 mm; achenes (0.95--) 1--1.35 mm wide; plants common in Arkansas …………………………………..………...C. festucacea Schkuhr

14. Leaf sheaths smooth; perigynia herbaceous, opaque, achene not clearly visible through the adaxial face of the perigynium, with the wings and base of beak usually finely and uniformly ciliate and  ± symmetric ………………..……… 17

17. Leaf sheaths green-ribbed adaxially nearly to the collar; perigynia usually biconvex, the bulge formed by the achene equally prominent on both perigynium faces ………..… …………………………………………...…..……… Carex suberecta (Olney) Britton

17. Leaf sheaths with white-hyaline area adaxially near the collar; perigynia usually plumply planoconvex, the bulge formed by the achene prominent only on the adaxial perigynium face ……..……………………………...………………………………… 18

18. Spikes on larger culms (3--) 5--7 (--11), tapered at the base, the terminal one with a conspicuous staminate base; inflorescences typically open, 2.5--4.5 (--6.5) cm long with the lowest internodes (3--) 4--13 (--23) mm long; perigynium body (0.7--) 0.9--1.3 times as long as wide (rarely to 1.6 in C. shinnersii) ……………………….….. 19

19. Larger achenes (1.2--) 1.4--1.8 mm wide, (1.6--) 1.7--2.2 mm long; larger perigynia 3.2--5.5 mm long, 2.5--3.6 mm wide, nerveless or faintly 1--5 (--7)-nerved adaxially ……………………………………………………………...….. 20

20. Larger perigynia 3.2--4.8 (--5.2) mm long, beaks 0.8--1.5 mm long; pistillate scales acute, 3.3--4 (--4.3) mm long, 2.3--2.9 (--3.1) times as long as wide; achenes 1--1.3 (--1.4) times longer than wide ……………….…………………….. ………………………………………. C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunnell

20. Larger perigynia (4.6--) 5--5.5 mm long, beaks 1.4--2.2 (--2.4) mm long; longer pistillate scales acuminate to awned, (3.7--) 4--5.2 (--5.6) mm long, (2.6--) 2.9—3.7 (--4.2) times as long as wide; achenes (1.2--) 1.4--1.7 times as long as wide … …………………………………………………………………………………... 25

19. Larger achenes 1--1.35 mm wide, 1.2--1.7 mm long; larger perigynia 2.5--4 (--4.2) mm long, 1.5--2.4 (--2.6) mm wide, mostly 2--4 (--6)-nerved adaxially ...……….… ………………….…………………………………………... C. festucacea Schkuhr

18. Spikes on larger culm 2--4 (--5), rounded at the base, the terminal one usually lacking a conspicuous staminate base; inflorescences compact, 1.2--3 (--3.6) cm long with the lowest internodes 1.5--7 (--13) mm long; perigynium body (0.7--) 0.9--1.6 times as long as wide …………………………………………………………...... 21

21. Achenes of larger perigynia 0.9--1.3 mm wide, elliptic to narrowly oblong, 1.3--1.6 times as long as wide; larger perigynia 1.8--2.8 (--3) mm wide, squarrose-spreading at maturity, (25--) 30--80 per spike……………... C. molesta Mackenzie

21. Achenes of larger perigynia 1.35--1.8 mm wide, broadly oblong to more or less orbicular, 1--1.3 times as long as wide; larger perigynia (2.1--) 2.5--3.4 (--3.5) mm wide, appressed-ascending at maturity, (10--) 15--40 (--45) per spike ………… 22

22. Perigynia nerveless or faintly and irregularly 1--5-nerved over achene on adaxial surface, the bodies (2--) 2.3--3.2 mm long,  ± orbicular (0.7--) 0.9--1.1 (--1.3) times as long as wide; pistillate scales mostly acute, about as long as to 0.7 (--0.9) mm shorter than the subtended perigynium (flattened and measured separately); widespread …...………………....…. C. brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunnell

22. Perigynia strongly (3--) 4--7-nerved over achene on adaxial surface, the bodies (2.7--) 3--4 mm long, broadly ovate to broadly elliptic, less often ± orbicular, (0.9--) 1--1.6 times as long as wide; pistillate scales mostly obtuse, 0.7--1.7 mm shorter than the subtended perigynium (flattened and measured separately); Ozark Mountains, Cumberland Plateau, central Appalachians … ….………………………………...…. C. molestiformis Reznicek & P. Rothrock

13. Larger perigynia 5.5--8 (--8.7) mm long, (3.1--) 3.3--6.1 mm wide (except sometimes in C. bicknellii and C. shinnersii), with beaks (1.4--) 1.6--2.5 (--3.4) mm long; perigynia thin and more or less wafer-like, more or less biconvex around the achene, the bulge often prominent on both faces of the perigynia …………………………………….... 23

23. Larger perigynia (2.5--) 2.7--4.8 mm wide,  (0--) 1--8 nerved over achene adaxially; staminate and pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate-awned, but the midrib not excurrent as a scabrous awn; larger culms with (3--) 4--7 (--11) spikes ………….... 24

24. Leaf sheaths finely papillose, at least near the apex; perigynia membranaceous, the brown achene clearly visible through the translucent adaxial face of the perigynium, usually with reddish-brown tinged wings, strongly and evenly 4--8 nerved adaxially over achene; pistillate scales usually reddish-brown; anthers 2.8--4.2 mm long; plants in small clumps (usually < 25 culms) in dry to mesic habitats ……………..… ……………………………………………………………….…. C. bicknellii Britton

24. Leaf sheaths smooth; perigynia herbaceous, opaque, achene not clearly visible through the adaxial face of the perigynium , with greenish or pale brown wings, finely and irregularly (0--) 1--7 nerved over achene adaxially; pistillate scales pale yellowish-brown to brown, anthers (1.8--) 2.2--3.6 mm long; plants often in dense, large clumps (up to 200 culms) in wet habitats ………………………………… 25

25. Staminate and pistillate scales acuminate-awned, the tip white to brownish-hyaline, membranaceous, often more or less curled, the midvein evanescent before the tip; beaks of larger perigynia 2--2.6 (--2.8) mm long; the body  (1.3--) 1.4--2.1 times as long as the beak ………………………….……………………………….. ……………………... C. missouriensis P. Rothrock & Reznicek spp. nov. ined.

25. Staminate and pistillate scales obtuse to acuminate, the tip firm and herbaceous, flat or inrolled, with the midvein prominent to the tip; beaks (1.2--) 1.5--2.1 (--2.3) mm long; the body 1.9--3 times as long as the beak ………………………. 26

26. Larger perigynia (5.6--) 6--7.1 mm long, 3.3--4.6 (--4.8) mm wide, exceeding the subtending scale by 1.5--2.6 mm; staminate and lower pistillate scales obtuse to acute; pistillate scales (2.2--) 2.4--3.2 (--3.4) times as long as wide …... ………….………….C. opaca P. Rothrock & Reznicek comb. nov., ined.

26. Larger perigynia 4.8--6 (--6.3) mm long, (2.5--) 2.7--3.8 mm wide, exceeding the subtending scale by (0.4--) 0.6--1.4 (--1.6) mm; staminate and lower pistillate scales acuminate; pistillate scales (2.6--) 2.9--3.7 (--4.2) times as long as wide …………….... C. shinnersii P. Rothrock & Reznicek, spp. nov. ined.

23. Larger perigynia 4--6.1 mm wide, nerveless over achene adaxially, or nearly so; at least the lower staminate scales, especially of the terminal spike (and sometimes the lowermost pistillate scales) with the midrib excurrent as a scabrous awn 0.1--0.9 (--2.4) mm long; larger culms with (2--) 3--4 (--5) spikes; this species is unknown in Arkansas ………….……………………………….. C. tetrastachya (= C. brittoniana)

 

Incorporate C. normalis immediately above…

 

5. Perigynia lanceolate, ovate, or round (wider at or below the middle) ....…….. 7

7. Inflorescences open at least below, proximal internode more than 6 mm long ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8

8. Perigynium bodies broadly elliptic to round, 0.9 - 1.3 times as long as wide, abruptly narrowed to beak; leaf blades 1.0 - 3.5 mm wide; proximal pistillate scales acute ……………………………………. Carex festucacea Schkuhr

8. Perigynium bodies ovate, lanceolate, or narrowly elliptic, tapering to a beak; leaf blades 1.3 - 6.5 mm wide; proximal pistillate scales obtuse …….. ………….…………………………………….. Carex normalis Mackenzie

7. Inflorescences dense, more or less head-like, proximal internode less than 6 mm long …………………………………………………..………………… 9

 

9. Leaf blades 2.5 - 6.5 mm wide, summit of sheaths prolonged up to 2 mm above the collar; perigynium bodies lanceolate, greenish ………………... ………….…………………………………….. Carex normalis Mackenzie

9. Leaf blades 1.5 - 4.0 mm wide, summit of sheaths U- shaped, or at most shortly prolonged above the collar; perigynium bodies elliptic or round, pale or tan brown ………………………………..….. Carex molesta Mackenzie

 

 

Key J

 

 

1. Perigynia corky at the base only on the ventral (adaxial) surface, about 2.2 - 4.0 (-4.5) mm long; beak of perigynium shorter than the body …………………………….…… 2

2. Beaks of perigynia smooth (use 10 - 30x lens) …….........................................…….. 3

3. Spongy-thickened zone on adaxial face of perigynium 0.4 - 0.6 times as long as perigynium; perigynium 1.5 - 2.3 times as long as wide; perigynia biconvex, base striate ventrally ................................................................... C. retroflexa Willdenow

3. Spongy-thickened zone on adaxial face of perigynium 0.25 - 0.35   times as long as perigynium; perigynium 2.3 - 3.1 times as long as wide; perigynia plano-convex [define], base nerveless ventrally ......................................... C. texensis L. H. Bailey

2. Beaks of the perigynia serrulate (very finely toothed) (use 10 - 30x lens) …………. 4

4. Culms arising from a long-creeping fibrillose rhizome; most perigynia 1/5 to 1/4 as wide as long, linear-lanceoloid, 3.6 - 4.1 mm long, 0.7 - 1.2 mm wide; pistillate scales acuminate to mucronate, 1/2 the length of the perigynia; plants of floodplain forest of the Mississippi River system (flatlands of Arkansas) ……...…………….. ………………………………………... C. socialis Mohlenbrock & Schwegmann

4. Culms densely cespitose; perigynia 1/3 to 1/2 as wide as long, lanceoloid, 3.0 - 3.5 mm long, about 1.5 mm wide; pistillate scales obtuse to acute, 3/4 the length of the perigynia; plants of forested floodplains and small valleys in uplands .................… 5

5. Narrow leaved plants with straight to slightly twisted stigmas 0.03 - 0.06 mm thick; base of fertile culms 0.8 - 1.5 mm wide; broadest leaves 1.3 - 1.9 mm wide  .......…………………………............................................. C. radiata Wahlenberg

5. Wider leaved plants with mostly coiled stigmas 0.07 - 0.10 mm thick; base of fertile culms (1.5-) 1.6 - 2.2 mm wide; broadest leaves 1.8 - 2.6 mm wide ........… …................................................................................................. C. rosea Schkuhr

1. Perigynia corky at the base on both sides, ventrally (adaxially) and dorsally (abaxially), about 4 - 8 mm long; beak of perigynium 1 - 2 (-3) times as long as the body …..…… 2

2. Beak of perigynium shorter than length of the main body of the perigynium; the flat inner face of the perigynium not nerved or (usually) with short nerves only at the base ………………………………………………………………………………………... 3

3. Inner (ventral) side (the thinner side without vertical ribs or stripes) of leaf-sheath cross- wrinkled; leaf blades mainly 5-10 mm wide; scales of the pistillate flowers whitish; base of stem [green?] ..................................................... C. conjuncta Boott

3. Inner side of the leaf-sheath not cross-wrinkled; leaf blades 2.5-4.5 (-5.0) mm wide; scales of the pistillate flowers brownish or tinged brown; base of stem whitish ....................................................................................... C. oklahomensis Mackenzie

2. Beak of perigynium as long or longer than length of the main body of the perigynium; the flat inner face of the perigynium either strongly nerved, or if not nerved, then the perigynium very long beaked or of a lanceolate shape and tapering into a beak …………………………......……………………………………….......... 4

4. Perigynium (6-) 7-8 mm long, about equally thickened ventrally and dorsally, forming an abruptly enlarged and widened disk-like base; beak of perigynium about 2 (-3) times as long as the body of the perigynium; the flat inner side of perigynium not nerved or faintly nerved; inner (ventral) side of leaf sheath red-purple dotted but not cross-wrinkled; entire inflorescence 8-18 cm long ................................................ …......................................................................... C. crus-corvi Shuttlew. ex Kuntze

4. Perigynium about 4-6 mm long, thickened more dorsally than vertrally, not forming an abruptly enlarged and widened disk-like base (but base continuous with the rest of the body which gradually tapers to the base; beak of perigynium less than 2 times as long as the body of the perigynium; the flat inner side of perigynium strongly nerved; inner (ventral) side of leaf sheath not red-purple dotted but either cross-wrinkled or not; entire inflorescence 2-8 (10) cm long ............................................. 5

5. Leaf sheaths with a thin summit which is prolonged as a loose membranous projection beyond the base of the leaf blade; inner thin ventral side of the leaf sheath usually cross-wrinkled; entire inflorescence (4-) 5-8 (-10) cm long; Arkansas specimens annotated by others as this and reviewed to date confirmed to actually be  C. oklahomensis ............................................… C. stipata Muhlenberg

5. Leaf sheaths with a thick yellowish margin which is sunken in the middle (concave) or nearly straight-edged; inner thin ventral side of the leaf sheath not or rarely cross-wrinkled; entire inflorescence 2-4 (-5) cm long; verified in Arkansas ......................................................................... C. laevivaginata (Kukenth) Mack.

 

 

Key K

 

(corresponds to Smith Key C, but heavily modified

from Smith (1994) using Reznicek's keys (pers. commun.) and Yatskievych (1999)

 

1. Sheaths loose and easily breaking ventrally; prominently septate-nodulose or green-and- white mottled dorsally ........................................................................................…. 1

2. Perigynia light green to brown, the beak 1/4 to 1/3 the length of the main body; scales long acuminate to awn-tipped; spikes crowded ...........................................…………... ...………............................................... Sect. Phaestoglochin C. gravida L. H. Bailey

2. Perigynia dark green, the beak 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the main body; scales obtuse to acute; lower spikes usually separate; spikes either crowded or remote and in a moniliform head; scales short-cuspidate …………………………………………….. 2

3. Inflorescence dense, the individual spikes overlapping on the axis (main stem); leaf sheaths usually lacking cross-wrinkling, the sheath tip firm and usually somewhat thickened ………………………………Sect. Phaestoglochin C. aggregata Mack.

3. Inflorescence more open, with at least the lowermost spikes well separated on the axis (main stem) or only slightly overlapping; leaf sheaths usually cross-wrinkled, the sheath tip thin and easily torn ……………………………………………………. ………………………………. Sect. Phaestoglochin C. sparganioides Muhlenberg

1. Sheaths tight ventrally (thin side), slightly (if at all) septate  nodulose [define] or green-and-white mottled dorsally  .....………............................................................................ 4

4. Heads usually 0.4-2.5 cm long, densely capitate; inflorescence a dense, more or less solid, single, unbranched, head-like mass of spikes, usually without any interrupted areas or spaces between the spikes .............................................................................. 5

5. Leaves shorter and narrower; perigynia widest near the base and therefore deltoid with more or less truncate-cordate bases; habitats include sunny roadside ditches, sidewalks, lawns, and floodplains; somewhat ruderal; native habitat is dry, more or less calcareous  open sites ................ Sect. Phaestoglochin C. leavenworthii Dewey

5. Leaves longer and wider; perigynia widest near the middle and ovoid; habitats include roadsides, floodplains, fields, and north facing and upland woodlands; less likely in sidewalks, lawns, and ditches ..................................................................... 6

6. Perigynia 1.5-1.9 mm wide, 2.0-3.3 mm long; scales much shorter than the bodies of the perigynia and mostly concealed by the perigynia .…………………………. …………..... Sect. Phaestoglochin C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

6. Perigynia 2.0-2.5 mm wide, 3.0-3.5 mm long; scales longer than or slightly shorter than the bodies of the perigynia, the body of the scale nearly or about as long as the body of the perigynia .…………………………………………………. …………….... Sect. Phaestoglochin C. mesochoreaMuhlenberg ex Willdenow

4. Heads greater than 2 cm long, not capitate; inflorescence more elongated and more interrupted, varying from linear-oblong to oblong, or cylindric to narrowly ovoid, mostly 1.5-10.0 cm long, usually with interrupted areas or spaces between the spikes ..………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

7. Lower bracts prolonged, 2-3x length of head, leaflike ……………………………. …………………………………….. Sect. Phaestoglochin C. arkansana L. H. Bailey

7. Lower bract not prolonged, seldom exceeding the head, not leaflike …….............. 8

8. Pistillate scales not awned or barely awned; mature perigynia blackish, widest near the apex of the body; ventral (thin) side of the leaf sheath dotted with red ……….… ……..……………………...……….. Sect. Heleoglochin Carex decomposita Muhl.

8. Pistillate scales awned; mature perigynia yellowish, greenish, or brownish, widest near the middle or the base of the body; ventral (thin) side of the leaf sheath not dotted with red ..………..………………………………...……...………………… 9

9. Inflorescence about 2 - 4 cm long, with about 4 - 8 spikelets; beak of perigynium about 1/3 - 1/2 as long as the body; inner (thin) side of leaf sheath usually not cross-rugulose, thickened at the summit ……………………………………….. 10

10. Perigynia strongly nerved on both faces .……………………………….…… …….….. Sect. Phaestoglochin C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. muhlenbergii

10. Perigynia nerveless on the inner (ventral) face or with only short nerves at the base ................................................................................................................... 11

11. Perigynia 3.0-3.5 mm long, 2.0-2.5 wide, usually spreading at maturity; scales short or equal to and narrower than the main body of the perigynia, short-awned or pointed; bracts of the infloresecence narrow at the base, not broadly dilated ……………………………...........…………………………….. …….... Sect. Phaestoglochin C. muhlenbergii Willdenow var. enervis Boott

11. Perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm long, 2.5-3.0 wide, mostly ascending at maturity; at least the lower scales longer and broader than the main body of the perigynia, long-awned; bracts of the infloresecence broad and broadly dilated at the base ..................................... Sect. Phaestoglochin C. austrina (Small) Mackenzie

9. Inflorescence about 3 -10 cm long, with about 10 or more spikelets; beak of perigynium about 1/2 as long as the body (?); inner (thin) side of leaf sheath usually cross-rugulose at maturity, thin or somewhat thickened at the summit .. 12

12. Widest perigynia 1.2 - 2.3 mm wide; shoot bases 1.2 - 5.5 (-6.5) mm in diameter ... 13

13. Perigynia red dotted, at least on ventral surface over achene (especially so in older plants), the  widest perigynia with +/- reniform bodies 0.7-1.0 times as long as wide; spikelets with few long scales, without the bristly look of C. annectens; culms longer than leaves……..……………..……….. Sect. Multiflorae C.  triangularis Boeckeler

13. Perigynia never red dotted, the widest with bodies ovate to +/-  orbicular, 0.9-1.4 times as long as wide; spikelets with many to numerous long scales, giving the spikelet a “scruffy” or “bristly” look; culms either longer (in C. annectens) or shorter (in C. vulpinoidea) than leaves …….......................................................................... 14

14. Perigynium beak 0.5-1.0 times as long as body; larger perigynia 1.1-1.9 mm wide; culms shorter than some leaves or about as long as other leafy stems at maturity (obvious in the field, less so in poorly selected specimens) ………………………… ………………...…………………………. Sect. Multiflorae C. vulpinoidea Michx.

14. Perigynium beak 0.25-0.55 times as long as body; larger perigynia 1.5-2.3 mm wide; culms well exceeding the leaves at  maturity ………………........................ 15

15. Perigynia at maturity dull yellowish green to brown, often with several conspicuous nerves on the ventral face; inflorescences dense or loose, the axis often visible; bracts and pistillate scale awns +/- conspicuous; widespread in Arkansas ............................ Sect. Multiflorae C. annectens Bickn. var. annectens

15. Perigynia at maturity deep yellow or orange brown, mostly nerveless ventrally; inflorescences +/- dense, the axis not visible; bracts and pistillate scale awns inconspicuous; possible in Arkansas ....................................................................... ......... Sect. Multiflorae C. annectens Bickn. var. xanthocarpa (Bicknell) Wiegand

12. Widest perigynia 2.3-3.0 mm wide; shoot bases up to 8.5 mm in diameter .............. 16

16. Perigynia red dotted, at least on ventral surface over achene, the  widest with +/- reniform bodies 0.7-1.0 times as long as wide; beaks 0.6-1.1 mm long; larger culms 0.7-1.7 mm in diameter below inflorescence; taxon known from Little Rock and east in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain in Arkansas …………………………………………. ……………………………………………... Sect. Multiflorae C. triangularis Boeck.

16. Perigynia not red dotted, the widest with +/- suborbicular bodies 0.9-1.1 times as long as wide; beaks 0.8-1.2 mm long; larger culms 1.3-2.7 mm in diameter below inflorescence .............................................................................................................. 17

17. Inflorescence bracts inconspicuous, pistillate scales abruptly short-awned, inconspicuous in the inflorescence; taxon widely scattered in Arkansas .................... ................................................................ Sect. Multiflorae C. fissa Mack. var. fissa

17.  Inflorescence bracts and pistillate scales long acumincate-awned, conspicuous in the inflorescence; taxon not expected in Arkansas ................………………….......... ........................................... Sect. Multiflorae C. fissa Mack. var. aristata F. J. Herm.

 

 

Key L (Smith Key N)

 

(modified from Smith 1988)

 

1. Teeth of perigynium beak (1.25-) 1.5-2.0 mm long, recurved-spreading; mature perigynia tending to be reflexed ................................. Sect. Vesicariae C. comosa Boott

1. Teeth of perigynium beak about 2-4 mm long, erect or slightly spreading; mature perigynia spreading-ascending ........................................................................................ 2

2. Topmost spike with pistillate flowers in the upper part and staminate flowers at the base .............................................................................................................................. 3

3. Beaks of mature perigynia widely to horizontally spreading; style stongly curved (strongly sinuous) or abruptly bent near its base, persistent;  scales of the pistillate flowers with an awn or sharp point at the tip; achene body 2-3 times as long as wide; perigynia more or less red dotted on the inner surface; pistillate spikelets usually 1 (2) per culm ............................. Sect. Squarrosae; C. squarrosa Linnaeus

3. Beaks of mature perigynia upward pointing or assending; style nearly straight, tending to be deciduous;  scales of the pistillate flowers mainly blunt or with a short tip; achene body 1.75-2.00 times as long as wide; perigynia not or only slightly red dotted on the inner surface; pistillate spikelets (1-) 2-3 (-6) per culm ......………..... ......………………………………................... Sect. Squarrosae; C. typhina Michx.

2. Topmost spike with all the flowers staminate .................................………................ 3

3. Mature perigynia somewhat leathery in texture and firm … C. hyalinolepis Steudel

3. Mature perigynia membranaceous, torn easily ………………………….………… 4 4. Perigynia often blood red when dry (especially in immarture plants); perigynium body truncately contracted into the beak; pistillate bracts longer than the perigynia …………………………………………………………………...…………………. 5

5. Plants with rhizomes (not cespitose); plants of most of Arkansas, excluding the northern Ozarks; very common; scales with a narrow 1-2 mm wide hyaline wing on the lower portion of the scale; species about to be described, bur widespread in Arkansas and to the south …..………………………………………………… …………………………….. C. aureolensis sensu Reznicek & Ford, spp. nov.

5. Plants without rhizomes (cespitose); plants of most of Arkansas, excluding the northern Ozarks; very common; scales lacking a wing on the lower portion of the scale ...…………………………….….. Sect. Squarrosae; C. frankii Kunth

4. Perigynia not blood red when dry (may redden in immature plants); perigynium body tapered into the beak; pistillate bracts shorter than the perigynia ………….... 5

5. Perigynium with (14-) about 20 nerves, about 5-6 (-7) mm long; beak about 2 mm long; Arkansas habitats are primarily on limestone along small streams in north central Arkansas ............. Sect. Vesicariae  C. hystericina  Muhl. ex Willd.

5. Perigynia with about 10 (-13) nerves, about (6-) 7-9 mm long; beak about 3-4 mm long; Arkansas habitats vary ........................................................................... 6

6. Pistillate and staminate scales with long, rough (minutely scabrellous) awns; plants cespitose (lacking horizontal stolons) …………………………………..  …………………………………...…… Sect. Vesicariae C. lurida Wahlenberg

6. Pistillate and staminate scales not rough-awned, obtuse to acute or acuminate; plants not cespitose (with horizontal stolons) .........................................……..... …………………………………………....Sect. Vesicariae C. bullata Schkuhr

 

 

Key M (Smith Key I)

 

1. Lower pistillate scales large and inflated, about (4 —) 5 — 7 (— 10) mm wide; perigynia 8 — 9 mm long ...................................................... C. latebracteata Waterfall

1. Lower pistillate scales narrower, about 1 — 3 mm wide; perigynia 5 — 6 (—8) mm long ................................................................................................................................. 2

2. Body of the perigynium orbicular or nearly so, about 4/5 — 1 times as wide as long; perigynia usually 2 or 3 per spikelet ...……………………………............................. 3

3. Shoot bases tinged with red-purple; longest (per plant) staminate portion of terminal spike 3.4 — 5.6 (— 6.2) mm long; proximalmost (lowest) staminate scale in terminal spike (1.9 —) 2.1 — 3.3 mm long, (35 —) 44 — 77 % of length of staminate portion of terminal spike; perigynium beaks 1.4 — 2.3 (—2.5) mm long, 34 — 44 % of perigynium length …………………….…. C. timida Naczi & Ford

3. Shoot bases lacking red-purple; longest (per plant) staminate portion of terminal spike (4.9 —) 5.8 — 13.5 mm long; proximalmost (lowest) staminate scale in terminal spike 1.1 — 1.8 (— 2.1) mm long, 13 — 26 (— 35) % of length of staminate portion of terminal spike; perigynium beaks (1.9 —) 2.3 — 3.9 mm long, 39 — 53 % of perigynium length ……..……………….......... C. jamesii Schweinitz

2. Body of the perigynium oblong-oval, about 3/5 times as wide as long; perigynia usually 2 — 7 (— 9) per spikelet ................................................................................. 3

4. Tallest culm 0.18 — 0.38 of plant height; perigynia (7.0 —) 7.5 — 10.8 mm long, with beaks (3.6 —) 4.1 — 6.4 mm long; culms erect; peduncles usually erect to spreading; plants from Kentucky and South Carolina, south to the Florida panhandle, west to northeast Mississippi and middle Tennessee ................................ .............................................................. C. suberata Naczi, Reznicek, and B. A. Ford

4. Tallest culm 0.41 — 0.87 of plant height; perigynia 4.5 — 8 mm long, with beaks 1.7 — 4.3 mm long; culms erect to spreading; peduncles usually wide spreading to nodding; plants from southeast and northeastern United States ............................... 4

5. Longest staminate portion of terminal spikes 12.7 — 25.6 mm long; perigynia 5.8 — 8.0 mm long, with beaks 2.5 — 4.3 mm long; achenes (2.4 —) 2.6 — 3.4 mm long; plants of the southeastern United States (north to Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina) ..............................................C. basiantha Steudel

5. Longest staminate portion of terminal spikes 4.9 — 8.6 (— 10.3) mm long; perigynia 4.5 — 5.7 (— 6.5) mm long, with beaks 1.7 — 2.6 (— 2.8) mm long; achenes 1.8 — 2.6 mm long; plants of the northeastern United States (south to North Carolina and Tennessee, disjunct in Missouri and Arkansas) ........................ ............................................................... C. willdenowii Schkuhr var. willdenowii

 

 

Key N (Smith Key J)

 

1. Spring blooming species; similar to C. glaucescens (see couplet 2) but with mature pistillate spikelets erect; possible in south Arkansas ............... C. verrucosa Muhlenberg

1. Fall blooming species; mature spikelets drooping; known in Arkansas ........................ 2

2. Perigynia usually with several obvious nerves; scales tapering to a point; plants of wetlands, not usually found in isolated upland wet spots ........... C. joorii L. H. Bailey

2. Perigynia usually with only two nerves, the faces smooth; scales tapering to a point but with an ear-like projection in the hyaline border of each side; plants of wetlands, but often found (at least in Louisiana) in more upland areas (ponded road ruts, small drainages, ponds) than C. joorii ...................................................... C. glaucescens Ell.

 

 

Key O (Smith Key A, 16, 17)

 

Key to the section Hymenochlaenae (add C. venusta, poss. in S. Ark.)

The following key is based heavily on the key to this section by Yatskievych (1999), but differs in several areas.  It needs testing (1999).

 

1. Perigynia hairy ............................................................................................................... 2

2. Perigynia 4.7 tp 8.3 mm long; pistillate spikelets elongate, linear to cylindric, at least the lower ones drooping; lower leaf sheaths strongly tinged purplish ............................ .............................................................................. C. debilis Michx. var. pubera Gray

2. Perigynia 3.5 to 5.0 mm long; pistillate spikelets short, oblong to linear, erect; lower leaf sheaths not strongly tinged purplish ………………………………………………. …………………………….. C. oxylepis Torr. & Hook. var. pubescens Underwood

1. Perigynia glabrous .......................................................................................................... 3

3. Leaf sheaths evenly hairy on both sides, the blades hairy on the undersurface, at least near the base ................................................................................................................. 4

4. Perigynia 3.5 to 4.0 mm long, broadest near the middle, not inflated, but close to the achene, narrowly ellipsoid; upper pistillate scales acuminate to short-cuspidate; spikelets mainly 3 to 5 mm thick ............. C. oxylepis Torr. & Hook. var. oxylepis

4.Perigynia 4.0 to 5.0 mm long, broadest below the middle, inflated and loose around the achene, oblong-oviod; upper pistillate scales long-cuspidate (with a long awn about half as long as the main body of the scale; spikelets mainly 5 to 7 mm thick …................................................................................... C. davisii Schwein. & Torr.

3. Leaf sheaths and blades glabrous or the lowermost sheaths in some species somewhat hairy only on the dorsal side (species with minutely roughened but otherwise glabrous leaf blades should be keyed out as glabrous …............................................................ 5

5. Perigynia beakless at the tip ................................................. C. gracillima Schwein.

5. Perigynia with a short or long beak at the tip …....................................................... 6

6. Stem bases and basal leaf sheaths strongly tinged with reddish purple to dark purple ……………………………………………………………………………. 7

7. Perigynia 4.5 to 6.0 mm long, oblong-ovate in outline, green, turning yellowish brown or dull orange at maturity; pistillate scales awned ..…………………….... …………………………………………………..... C. davisii Schwein. & Torr.

7. Perigynia 6 to 10 mm long, narrowly elliptic-lanceolate in outline, light green at maturity; pistillate scales awnless ......................... C. debilis Michx. var. debilis

6. Stem bases and basal leaf sheaths brown or blackened, lacking red or purple color ...………………………………………………………………………………...... 8

8. Rhizomes absent or nearly so; pistillate scales short-awned at the tip; perigynia 3.0 to 4.0 (to 4.2) mm long ............................................ C. prasina Wahlenberg

8. Rhizomes well developed (often difficult to collect), stout, creeping; pistillate scales tapered to a sharp point, but awnless tip; perigynia 5 to 6 mm long .......... ................................................................................. C. cherokeensis Schweinitz

 

 

Key P (Smith Key K)

 

1. Plants loosely cepitose, sometimes forming colonies up to 0.5 m across in open areas and up to 1—2 m across in shaded areas; producing strong, ligneous, imbricate‑scaly rhizomes; lateral spikes frequently androgynous ……………………………………...… ……………………………........................... C. ouachitana Kral, Manhart, & Bryson

1. Plants densely cepitose; erhizomatous (without rhizomes), forming small clones which appear to be one plant, and cover only a few centimeters at the base; lateral spikes carpellate …………………………………………………………………………….. 2

2. Perigynia distichous (not spirally arranged); shoot base purple-red ……………….… ……………………………………………. (this section of key from Naczi 1999) … 3

3. Perigynia tightly enveloping achene or slightly inflated, obtusely triangular in cross-section, 1.4 — 1.9 (— 2.3) mm wide, (1.8 —) 2.1 — 3.3 times as long as wide ………………………....………………………………………….………….. 4

4. Perigynia (2.4 —) 2.5 — 3.3 times as long as wide, with bodies gradually tapering to apices and thus beakless or with beaks 0.1 — 0.3 mm long; perigynia (1.9 —) 2.0 — 2.3 times as long as achene bodies; achene beaks (0.3 —) 0.4 — 0.7 mm long; widest leaf (3.0 —) 3.5 — 6.5 mm wide; longest pistillate spikes with (5 —) 7 — 14 perigynia ………….……………… Carex planispicata Naczi

4. Perigynia (1.8 —) 2.1 — 2.6 times as long as wide, with bodies abruptly contracted near apices to beaks (0.4 —) 0.5 — 1.0 mm long; perigynia 1.5 — 1.9 (— 2.0) times as long as achene bodies; achene beaks 0.05 — 0.30 (— 0.50) mm long; widest leaf 1.8 — 4.0 mm wide; longest pistillate spikes with 4 — 8 (— 10) perigynia …………………………...………………………………..…………… 5

5. Lowest spike usually considerably above base of shoot, inflorescence 0.46 — 0.94 (— 0.99) of culm height; vegetative shoots exceeded by culms or slightly exceeding culms, tallest vegetative shoot 0.88 — 1.4 times as tall as tallest culm; hyaline band of sheaths of lower bracts apically convex and elongated (0.8 —) 1.1 — 4.0 mm above sheath apex; Arkansas species ……...…………… ……………………………………………………... Carex oligocarpa Schkuhr

 5. Lowest spike usually at base of shoot, inflorescence (0.88 —) 0.94 — 0.99 of culm height; vegetative shoots usually greatly exceeding culms, tallest vegetative shoot (0.80 —) 1.40 - 4.40 times as tall as tallest culm; hyaline band of sheaths of lower bracts apically concave or truncate; possibly in extreme SW Arkansas ….……………….……….. Carex edwardsiana E. L Bridges & Orzell

3. Perigynia much inflated, orbicular to suborbicular in cross-section, (1.8 —) 2.0 — 2.5 (— 2.8) mm wide, 1.6 — 2.0 (— 2.1) times as long as wide ………………….... ………………………………………………………….... C. bulbostylis Mackenzie

2. Perigynia spirally arranged (not distichous); shoot bases not purple—red (but green) ………………………………………………………………………………………... 6

6. Plants silvery gray or grayish green, glaucous; lowermost pistillate scales with the bodies much shorter than the associated perigynia …………………………...…… 7

7. Perigynia 4.0 — 5.5 mm; perigynium length/achene body length greater than or equal to 2 ( that is to say, mature achene fills perigynium halfway or less); fruits with the minute beak straight or nearly so ..................…...C. flaccosperma Dewey

7. Perigynia 3.3 — 4.3 (— 4.5) mm; perigynium length/achene body length less than or equal to 1.9 (that is to say, mature achene often nearly fills the perigynium); fruits with the minute beak noticeably bent ……………………….... ………………………………………………………… C. glaucodea Tuckerman

6. Plants light green to dark green, not glaucous; lowermost pistillate scales with the bodies as long or longer than the associated perigynia ………………………….… 8

8. Perigynia 2.0 — 2.6 mm wide at maturity, circular in cross—section or nearly so; main body of the fruits (excluding beak and stalklike base) 2.2 — 3.0 mm long … …………………………………………………………….. C. grisea Wahlenberg

8. Perigynia 1.5 — 2.3 mm wide at maturity, bluntly triangular in cross—section; main body of the fruits (excluding beak and stalklike base) 1.8 — 2.3 mm long … ………………………………………………………………………...………….. 9

9. Perigynia 4.2 — 5.2 mm long; 2.5 — 3.0 times as long as wide; plants of the Ozark/Ouachita woods, infrequently riverine; perigynia not corrugated latitudinally ………………………………………….….. C. amphibola Stuedel

9. Perigynia 3.5 — 4.5 mm long; 1.8 — 2.4 times as long as wide; plants of riverine floodplains, most frequent in Arkansas in the Mississippi Alluvian Plain; perigynia with latitudinal corrugations, making the perigynia look wrinkled when fresh or dry …………………………….. C. corrugata Fernald

 

Bonus key to separate C. bulbostylis from C. amphibola

 

1. Calcareous and riverine areas (more likely in south Arkansas); base of style bulbous and about 0.3 mm wide; leaves pale green; ligule wider than long; base of plant definitely purplish ..............................................………………………..... C. bulbostylis

1. More acid and riparian/riverine areas (more likely in north Arkansas); base of style scarcely enlarged and about 0.15‑0.2 mm wide; leaves green; ligule longer than wide; base of plant brownish‑purplish to purplish .....................……………….. C. amphibola

 

 

Key Q (Smith Key L)

 

Keys to the Laxiflorae and Careyanea of Arkansas: modified from Smith (1994), Naczi, et al. (2001). 

 

1. Widest leaves less than 12 mm wide ...................................................................…...... 1

2. Shoot bases purplish, with purplish colorating range from slight tinging of brown background in basal 1.5 cm of shoots to strong staining that obscures brown background and extends to 10 cm high; staminate scales and base of stems strongly purple tinged; pistillate bract sheath purple tinged ....................... C. careyana Torrey

2. Shoot bases brownish, with purplish color completely absent; staminate scales not or somewhat purple tinged, base of stem not (or rarely) purplish tinged; pistillate bract sheath not purple tinged .........................………………………....….......................... 3

3. Perigynium sharply triangular so that the edges of the perigynia stand out distinctly, short-tapering at the base, 2.9-3.3 mm long ...................…….…………………….. 4

4. Pistillate spikes without staminate flowers at the base; lowest scale of the pistillate spikelets with a perigynium; leaf blades (1.5-) 2.5-5.0 mm wide, dull or dark green .........................……………………………………………………...... 5

5. Terminal spikes 0.6 — 1.4 (— 1.6) mm wide; staminate scales obtuse, those from middle regions of terminal spike 2.6 — 3.6 (— 3.8) mm long; vegetative shoots much taller than culms, tallest vegetative shoots (1.4 —) 1.7 — 3.7 (— 4.9) times as tall as tallest culm ………………………………..……………… 6

6. Perigynia distichously imbricate (arranged alternately vs spirally); longer lateral spikes with 4 — 8 (— 9) perigynia; peduncles of proximal spikes usually drooping or nodding, the longest (per plant) peduncle (28 —) 44 — 84 (— 91) mm long; bract blade of distalmost (at the tip) lateral spike (12 —) 17 — 51 times as long as wide; densely cespitose …………………………….….. ……………………………...….. C. cumberlandensis Naczi, Kral, & Bryson

6. Perigynia spirally imbricate (arranged spirally); longer lateral spikes with (6 —) 8 — 13 perigynia; peduncles of proximal spikes usually erect, the longest (per plant) peduncle (7 —) 15 — 42 (— 49) mm long; bract blade of distalmost (at the tip) lateral spike 5.6 — 17 (— 26) times as long as wide; loosely or densely cespitose …………………...….. C. abscondita Mackenzie

5. Terminal spikes (1.0 —) 1.2 — 2.7 mm wide; staminate scales acute, those from middle regions of terminal spike 3.6 — 5.5 mm long; vegetative shoots shorter than or slightly taller than culms, tallest vegetative shoots 0.5 — 1.3 (— 1.8) times as tall as tallest culm …………………………………….…………. 7

7. Terminal spike usually surpassing bract blade of the distalmost (tallest) lateral spike; longest (per plant) peduncle of terminal spike (6.3 —) 8.1 — 15.9 cm long; widest leaf blade 2.0 —2.9 (— 3.5) mm wide; each perigynium face with 7 — 10 nerves; tends to be southern (in Arkansas); perigynia less curved and slightly smaller ............…..... C. digitalis Willd. var. macropoda Fernald

7. Terminal spike usually surpassed by bract blade of the distalmost (tallest) lateral spike; longest (per plant) peduncle of terminal spike 0.9 — 7.2 (— 11.4) cm long; widest leaf blade 2.7 —4.5 (— 5.3) mm wide; each perigynium face with (8 —) 11 — 15 nerves; tends to be northern (in Arkansas); perigynia more curved or not,  and slightly larger ........………..... 8

8. Perigynia 2.5 — 3.3 mm long, apex barely excurved …..................………..… …………………………………………......... C. digitalis Willd. var. digitalis

8. Perigynia 3.2 — 4.2 mm long, apex noticably excurved .…….......................... ………………………………... C. digitalis Willd. var. asymmetrica Fernald

4. Pistillate spikes with 1-3 staminate flowers at the base; lowest scate of the pistillate spikelets empty or with a staminate flower; leaf blades (4—) 5—12 (—15) mm wide, glaucous or grey-green, or bright green .......................................... 9

9. Leaves glaucous and generally wider, the widest leaf blade 6.4 — 11.8 mm wide; longest terminal spike (1.0 —) 1.2 — 2.5 cm long;  perigynia tightly clustered, longest pistillate spikelets 10-12 mm long, 1.7-2.5 times as long as wide; often occurs in more upland or drier sites ............………………………… .……………………………………. C. laxiculmis Schwein. var. laxiculmis *

9. Leaves green and generally narrower, the widest leaf blade 5.3 — 8.3 mm wide; longest terminal spike 0.6 — 2.0 (— 2.3) cm long; perigynia more loosely clustered, longest pistillate spikelets 12-21 mm long, 2.2-3.6 (or more) times as long as wide; often occurs in richer or more mesic sites ...............…………….... ….…….... C. laxiculmis Schweinitzvar. copulata (L. H. Bailey) Mackenzie *

3. Perigynium obtusely triangular so that the edges of the perigynia do not stand out distinctly but are slightly rounded into the sides of the perigynia (at least below), long-tapering at the base, small to medium sized, 2.5-5.0 mm long ……………................. 10

10. Bract sheaths smooth to shallowly serrulate on the edges (use 20x lens) ……...… 11

11. Stems and mid-portion of lower surfaces of leaf blades not white-striolate; perigynia 4.5 mm long or longer; fertile stems not winged ……………................ 12

12. Leaf margins smooth .................................. C. laxiflora Lamarck var. laxiflora

12. Leaf margins serrulate .............. C. laxiflora Lamarck var. serrulata Hermann

11. Stems and mid-portion of lower surfaces of leaf blades conspicuously white-striolate; perigynia 3.00-4.25 mm long; fertile stems narrowly winged ................. 13

13. Perigynia somewhat separated (not overlapping much); leaves firm, pale, those of the rosette-like sterile tufts 7-25 mm broad, those of the fertile  culms 2-7 mm broad; that is, basal leaves of the fertile culms reduced ........... C. striatula Michx.

13. Perigynia overlapping to very close; leaves flaccid, deep green, those of the elongate sterile tufts 2-15 mm broad, those of the fertile  culms 2.5-3.5 mm broad; that is, basal leaves of the fertile culms well developed with blades 3-7 mm broad  …………………………………………............................... C. styloflexa Buckley

10. Bract sheaths strongly serrulate on the edges (use 20x lens);………..................... 14

14. Perigynium beaks straight or oblique .............................................….................. 15

15. Upper pistillate spikes with spaces between each other; perigynia elliptic-ovoid or fusifrom, rather sharply  angled above; stems minutely, retrorsely serrulate (use 20-30x lens); south Arkansas .....…................................... C. crebriflora Wiegand

15. Upper pistillate spikes crowded; perigynia tapering into a more or less straightish beak; serrulate bract sheaths and leaf sheath margins; large more or less leafy upper pistillate bracts more or less enveloping the perigynia; pistillate scales cuspidate or aristate .......... C. laxiflora Lamarck var. serrulata Hermann

14. Perigynium beaks abrupty bent; stems not retrosely serrulate ............................. 16

16. Leaf blades 7-30 mm wide; sterile shoots reduced to tufts of leaves, not forming stems; fertile stems winged (wing about 0.3-1.0 mm wide); pistillate scales obovate-orbicular, truncate ................................................... C. albursina Sheldon

16. Leaf blades 3.5-15.0 mm wide; sterile shoots developing stems; fertile stems not or slightly winged (wing to 0.3 mm wide); pistillate scales mucronate to long awned ..…...…...............................…………………………………………….. 17

17. Stems brownish at the base; leaf sheaths whitish dorsally; perigynia mostly 3-4 mm long; staminate scales usually greenish white, slightly tinged reddish-brown; occuring statewide ........................................................ C. blanda Dewey

17. Stems purplish-tinged at the base; leaf sheaths greenish dorsally; perigynia mostly 2.5-3.5 mm long; staminate scales strongly tinged reddish-brown; very likely in north Arkansas .................................................. C. gracilescens Steudel

1. Widest leaves greater than 15 mm wide ...............................................................…... 17

17. Base of plant reddish; perigynia [larger] mm long ..................... C. careyana Torrey

17. Base of plant greenish or tan, not reddish; perigynia [smaller] mm long ............... 18

18. Perigynium beak abruptly turned; leaves (2.0-) 2.5 - 3.3 cm wide ………………….. ……………………………………………………………......... C. albursina Sheldon

18. Perigynium beak slightly turned or twisted; leaves of some plants up to 2.6+ cm wide ……………………………….............................................................................19

19. Perigynia 3.0-4.7 mm long; pistillate scales clearly (about 1.5) longer than wide, compartively elongated; bracts, leaves, culms smooth, without teeth ........................ ........................................................................... C. laxiflora Lamarck var. laxiflora

19. Perigynia 2.3-3.7 mm long; pistillate scales about as long as wide, rounded; bracts, leaves, minutely serrulate (with fine teeth), but culms various, smooth or toothed ............................................ C. laxiflora Lamarck var. serrulata Hermann

 

* Note: C. laxiflora is similar to this taxon.  Perigynia tend to be tightly clustered and overlapping in C. laxiculmis var. laxiculmis, fairly tightly clustered to overlapping in var. copulata, and slightly overlapping (often less than half the perigynium overlapping adjoining perigynia) in C. laxiflora.  These characters don't help much if you have only a single specimen, but become more readily apparent when you have several sheets of correctly annotated to deal with.

 

 

Key R (Smith Key M)

 

(revised January 26, 2001: complete at this point)

 

1. Rootstocks not long-creeping, without long rhizomes (cespitose, that is, tufted, or in clumps); staminate spikelet short-peduncled (stalkless) or sessile; upper 2 pistillate spikelets usually continuous ………….………….. Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd.

1. Rootstocks long-creeping, with long rhizomes (these tend to break, not present in some collections taken from rocky areas); staminate spikelets long-peduncled (with a long stalk); pistillate spikelets widely separated ………………………………………….… 2

2. Perigynia pale green or pale brown or nearly white, often somewhat glaucous; broadest above the middle, tapered at the base, tightly enveloping the fruit; leaf blades with minute papillae on the under surface …………………...… Carex meadii Dewey

2. Perigynia green to brown, not pale or glaucous; broadest at or below the middle, rounded at the base, loosely enveloping the fruit; leaf blades smooth on the under surface ……………………………………………………………………………….. 3

3. Perigynium beaks less than 0.5 mm long; perigynia 2.5 — 3.5 mm long; leaf blades 1.5 — 3.1 mm wide; pistillate spikelets 5 — 6 mm wide; achenes obovoid, 1.6 — 2.0 mm long, the apiculation straight or flexuous; length of perigynium teeth not dependable for identification; mature plants with leaves less than 4 mm wide; plants without papillae (see also C. meadii) …..………….…………. Carex crawei Dewey

2.  Perigynium beaks 0.5 mm long or longer; perigynia 3.0 — 4.5 mm long; leaf blades 3 — 6 mm wide; pistillate spikelets about 7.5 mm wide; achenes oblong-obovoid to elliptical, 2.5 — 2.7 mm long, the apiculation strongly sinuous (bent-recurved); length of perigynium teeth not dependable for identification; mature plants with leaves 5 — 6, often more than 10 mm wide; plants without papillae (see also C. meadii) ………………..…………… Carex microdonta Torrey  & Hooker

 

 

Key extra (not needed to key Arkansas species with other keys)

 

Key to the sections of Arkansas Carex

 

Extra incomplete key sections: not currently needed or in use.

 

(keys are woefully incomplete!)

 

 

1. Perigynia 10 mm long or longer ........ Section Lupulinae (C. lupulina and several taxa)

1. Perigynia less than 10 mm long ..................................................................................... 2

2. Hairs present on some part of the plants (look at base of leaves and culms, on sheaths, bracts, etc.), stigmas and styles almost always 3 in all species listed here ....... 3

3. Perigynia hairy ......................................................................................................... 4

3. Perigynia glabrous ............................................................................... undetermined

2. Hairs absent on plants (leaves, bracts, and culms); stigmas and styles 2 ................. A1

A1. Perigynia hairy or with a minute rough puberulence (rough toothed or serrulate beaks of glabrous perigynia are not included here) ................................................... B1

A1. Perigynia glabrous or nearly so (roughened, toothed, or serrulate margins of beaks are included here) ............................................................................................ C1

C1. Spikes bisexual; perigynia flattened; stigmas and styles 2           ............................ 100

C1. Upper spikes staminate or gynecandrous; if gynecandrous, stigmas 3; if stigmas 2, then spikes unisexual or lateral spikes androgynous ........................................ 200

 

100. Spikelets about 6 to 20 times as long as wide ............................................................... ..................................................................... Section Phacocystis (C. crinita and 2 species)

100. Spikelets about 1 to 3 (to 4) times as long as wide ................................................ 101

101. All or only the terminal spike gynecandrous (look for male flowers at base of spikelet; you may see anthers, you may just see closely overlapping scales); some species with perigynia winged .................................................................................... 102

102. All species with perigynia winged; that is, the perigynia flattened, the margins with thin, prominent wings, at least apically (toward the tip) ........................................ ....................................................................................... Section Ovales (many species)

102. All species with perigynia wingless; that is, the perigynia plump, the margins without wings, some species with margins rounded or angled, or narrowly ridged ....... ....................................................................................................................................103

103. Perigynia mostly spreading or reflexed, occasionally ascending ........................   ........................................................ Section Stellulatae (C. atlantica and C. interior)

103. Perigynia all ascending to nearly erect ................................................................ ......... Section Deweyanae (only C. bromoides Schkuhr var. bromoides in Arkansas)

101. All of the spikes androgynous (look for male flowers at tip of spikelet; you may see anthers, you may just see a point at pointed tip of spikelet with closely overlapping scales); perigynia without wings (thin tissue at edges) ............................................... 104

104. Beaks of the perigynia entire or obliquely cut at the apex ............................... 105

105. Ventral leaf sheath green-striate, sheath prolonged into a conspicuous hyaline, tubular ligule ........................... Section Intermediae (excluded section for Arkansas)

105. Ventral leaf sheath hyaline, truncate at base, ligule inconspicuous ..................... ........................................................ Section Divisae (excluded section for Arkansas)

104. Beaks of the perigynia prominently bidentate at the apex ............................... 106

107. Perigynia corky or thickened at the base, the walls thin ............................... 108

108. Spikelets crowded, more than 10 (usually numerous) per inflorescence, at least one of the lower-most nodes usually with more than one spike (that is, inflorescence compound) .......................................................................................... ............................................. Section Vulpinae (c. crus-corvi and 3 related species)

108. Spikelets mostly fewer than 10 per inflorescence, 1 per node, unbranched ..... ......................... Section Phaestoglochin (in part; C. retroflexa and related species)

107. Perigynia not corky or thickened at the base, the walls thick or thin ........... 109

109. Leaf sheaths loose, septate dorsally (with scattered cross-connections between the veins), not red-dotted on the thin ventral surface .................... Section Phaestoglochin (in part;  C. sparganioides,  C. aggregata,  and  C.sparganioides)

109. Leaf sheaths tight, not septate dorsally (or if somewhat loose or septate, then red-dotted on the thin ventral surface ................................................................ 110

110. Inflorescence compound, with lower branches conspicuous, to 4 cm long; perigynia dark brown to olive green or nearly black at maturity ........................... ................................................................ Section Heleoglochin (C. decomposita)

110. Inflorescence either not compound, or if compound, the lower branches not conspicuous; inflorescence shorter than 4 cm in most species ....................... 111

111. Central rachis unbranched, all spikelets crowded and/or simple ................ ...................................................................................... Section Phaestoglochin (in    part;    C. leavenworthii    and    C. muhlenbergii     and     related     taxa)

111. Central rachis branched near the base, some of the basal spikelets bearing branched spikelets ......... Section Multiflorae (C. vulpinoidea and related taxa)

 

 

Key to the Vulpinae

 

A. Body of the perigynium tapering into a beak, if abruptly contracted, then culm winged and flattened under pressure . . . Section 4. Vulpinae

1. Culms flattened, winged; perigynia ovate, rounded at base, contracted into beaks . .  C. conjuncta

1. Culms triangular, slightly (if at all) winged; perigynia truncate-rounded at base, tapering into beaks                                                                                                       2

2. Perigynia [could copy 19-21 of McGregor . . . for C. crus-corvi, oklahomensis, stipata, and laevivaginiata.

A. Body of perigynium abruptly contracted into a beak; culm not winged or flattened . . . Section 2. Multiflorae

 

Species accounts (subgenera, species, and intraspecific taxa)

(revised Jan. 15, 2001)

 

Sequence of info: wetland status, dates for mature (not immature or overly ripe) specimens, habitat, frequency, blades, sheaths, culms, rachis, inflorescence, spikelets, scales, perigynia, beak, achenes, range, taxonomic comments, management notes.  Note: this format has been used only for C. decomposita to date (November 3, 1996), and is simply proposed here.  Actual formatting of the species accounts in a formal format or pattern is an adventure left for a later date.  [Mark species as [formatted] when done.

 

Sequence of info:

wetland status,

dates for mature (not immature or overly ripe) specimens,

habitat,

frequency,

blades,

sheaths and ligules,

culms,

rachis,

inflorescence,

spikelets,

scales,

perigynia,

beak,

achenes,

range,

taxonomic comments,

management notes. 

 

Texas flora sequence                                                                                  Fl. of Mo. sequence

Sci. name                                                                                                      whole plant

common name                                                                                            underground structures

taxi. desc.                                                                                                      leaves

habitat                                                                                                           infl, flowers, perianth, stamens, carpals fruits

range                                                                                                              chromo #

phenology                                                                                                     common name

area of origin                                                                                                missouri then total range

synonyms                                                                                                     habitats

toxic?                                                                                                             taxonomy, bio, and other topics

                                                                                                                        citations and data sources

                                                                                                                        ssp. and var.

 

 

 

Intro to Arkansas Carex: an annotated list.

Introduction and general info.

Delayed manuscript due out in 2011, by Philip E. Hyatt
(revised October 1, 2012)

Note: I my end up simply putting all my Carex info on line.

In 1991, I started a long term project to study the Carex sedges (Family Cyperaceae, the sedge family) of Arkansas. Gradually, this project grew from an initial goal of collecting about 7000 specimens over a 20 year period and producing a book, into what it is today. The journal SIDA (now JBRIT) included "Arkansas Carex (Cyperaceae): a briefly annotated list" (see Sida 18(2): 535-554. 1998) for a summary of work to date. I published an update adding several species to the state's flora in Castanea in 2004. The draft manuscript of the long version (100+ pages currently) is available on request. This page serves several purposes: it provides a regularily updated summary of interesting finds, it gives status of the work, and it challenges other botanists (especially students and amatuers... they contribute as much as professors) to help contribute to our knowledge of these and other plants.

One hundred and thirty species (taxa, actually) are presently known to occur in Arkansas. The articles cited list them. In addition, I'm involved in the Arkansas Flora Project, and have agreed to produce a treatment of the Cyperaceae for the upcoming Flora of Arkansas.

A brief note on plant collecting. Generally, it is not recommended. Sedges are such a tough group and so poorly known, collecting is often necessary for identification. Identificaion usually takes a dissecting microscope, or at least a 10x hand lens, so the amatuer will have difficulty getting to know these plants without help. If you want to study sedges, consult your local expert or me! Even with these plants, there are rare species, so some knowledge is important while collecting. At the same time, without collecting, we (actually other scientists) wouldn't have described three new-to-science species for Arkansas in the 1990's. I do the basic work and leave description to professors.

One last note on the effects of collecting on rare species. Carex umbellata was once listed as S1 in Arkansas, there rarest rank assigned by the state. As a result of collecting, I now know it's probably the most common species of this type of sedge in Arkansas! We went from 25 to 53 known counties in one week in 1996!

Note: I use the first four letter to abbreviate Arkansas county names below.

Note to the non-botanist: I'm using scientific names, C. to abbreviate the genus Carex followed by the species name in italics (or whatever your server does for emphasis), followed by the author(s) of the name. This standard scientific practice looks confusing even to us scientists, but we get used to it.

Trichophorum (not) of Arkansas

Revised October 1, 2012

Trichophorum planfolium

Trichophorum planfolium has many synonyms and is currently unknown in Arkansas. It is likely in northern Arkansas based on its distribution in Yatskievych (1999). Synonyms include Isolepis planfolia Spreng., Scirpus planfolius Muhl. var. planifolius but not the other variety, and Scirpus verecundus Fern.

Rhynchospora of Arkansas:

an annotated list

Revised September 24, 2008.

Rhynchospora of Arkansas

Several species of Rhynchospora occur in Arkansas. Several are weedy and / or wetland species.

Taxonomy of species marked with an asterisk * matches the "Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Arkansas" (Gentry, et al. 2006).

(Green text designates species recognized in the above cited checklist.

Blue text designates "possible additions" to the flora of Arkansas, not currently represented by specimens.

Red text designates excluded species, perhaps attributed to but not expected in Arkansas by this author.

Rhynchospora of Arkansas

*Rhynchospora caduca Elliott

I have a single record of this species from Hempstead County, housed at APCR. I am not confident of its identification and know of no other Arkansas records. My lack of confidence is based on my inexperience with this genus; that is, I'm unsure my identification was correct because it was probably done without comparison material and simply by using keys. Flora of North American records the mainly southeastern United States and all states adjoining Arkansas excluding Missouri.

*Rhynchospora capillacea Torr.

I have no records of this species from Arkansas, but it is listed for Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee. Arkansas seems to be on the southern edge of the range with Alabama, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Texas.

*Rhynchospora capitellata (Michx.) Vahl

My records show this species from Benton, Cleburne, Fulton, and Pope counties with those specimens at APCR. This species occurs throughout the eastern United States and in Oregon and California (Flora of North America.)

*Rhynchospora cephalantha A. Gray

I have no records of this species from Arkansas, but it is listed for Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee. This species seems to occur only in Atlantic and Gulf Coastal states in the United States (Flora of North America).

*Rhynchospora chalarocephala Fernald & Gale

I have no records of this species from Arkansas, but it is listed for Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee. I'm beginning to wonder if Arkansas' Rhynchospora species are based on misidentifications by non-experts!

*Rhynchospora colorata (L.) H. Pfeiff.

I have seen two specimens of this species for Arkansas, both from Bradley County, Arkansas. One, collected by Demaree (19264), is at LSU. The second is at UCAC and collected fairly recently by John Logan (101). Flora of North America shows Arkansas as the only non-coastal state with this taxon.

*Rhynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray

Common weedy species, especially in the flatlands of Arkansas. I have seen specimens form 20 counties, all south of Franklin, Pope, Independence, and Randolph counties. This species is quite distinctive and large compared to other Rhynchospora species in Arkansas. This generally southeastern species is known from all states surrounding Arkansas.

*Rhynchospora globularis(Chapm.) Small var. globularis

I have no records of this species from Arkansas, but it is listed for Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee.

*Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl

I have records of this species from central and southern Arkansas, based on specimens at APCR, LTU, MICH, UARK, UCAC, and UNA which I have reviewed. Current known distribution is limited within counties within Miller, Johnson, Faulkner, Jefferson, and Bradley counties. This southeastern species is known from most southeastern states. Very common.

*Rhynchospora gracilenta A. Gray

I have no records of this species from Arkansas, but it is listed for Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee.

*Rhynchospora harveyi Boott var. harveyi

Southern Arkansas? Need to find my data!

*Rhynchospora inexpansa (Michx.) Vahl

Southern Arkansas! One of the more common species often occuring in large numbers in wet fallow fields and similar sunny wetlands. Also common on roadsides and other habitats.

*Rhynchospora macrostachya Torr. ex A. Gray

Similar to R. corniculata but much less common in Arkansas. I've only found it in Lonoke County represented by a specimen at UTC (Kessler 4332 ), although my notes say "identification probably ok". It is known from most southeastern states.

*Rhynchospora microcarpa Baldwin ex A. Gray

I've only seen a single specimen from UCAC and Faulkner County.

*Rhynchospora plumosa Elliott

I have no records of this species in Arkansas but it is recognized as occurring in Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee.

*Rhynchospora rariflora (Michx.) Elliott

I've only seen a single specimen from APCR and Calhoun County.

*Rhynchospora recognita (Gale) Kral

I've seen specimens from 13 Arkansas counties from Lafayette to Yell to Stone to Independence to Drew counties. This taxon has previously been considered Rhynchospora globularis (Chapm.) Small var. recognita Gale.

*Rhynchospora scirpoides (Torr.) Griseb.

I have no records of this species in Arkansas but it is recognized as occurring in Arkansas by the Arkansas Flora Committee.